The Swedenborg epic

Table of Contents


Notes and References


(Works mentioned are by Swedenborg unless otherwise indicated. [Works in bold are from the works Swedenborg published himself, which have full Divine authority.  See "Which of Swedenborg's theological works are Divine revelation?")]

AC - Arcana Coelestia.
- Academy Collection of Swedenborg Documents, Bryn Athyn, Penna.
AK - The Animal Kingdom.
CL - Conjugial Love.
- Chronological List of the Swedenborg Documents (ms.), by A. H. Stroh and S. O. Sigstedt.
Cuno - Cuno's Memoirs, Bryn Athyn, 1947.
EAK - The Economy of the Animal Kingdom.
G - Svenska Folkets Underbara Öden,
by C. Grimberg, Stockholm, 1922.
HH - Heaven and Hell.
IWE - Introduction to the Word Explained,
by A. Acton, 1927.
IR - Intellectual Repository, London.
JS - Jesper Swedbergs Levernesbeskrivning (Autobiography), edited by G. Wetterberg, Lund, Gleerup, 1941: Portions translated in Tafel, I, 96-154; 194-6.
JD - The Journal of Dreams.
L - Letters and Memorials,
by A. Acton, 1948.
NCL - "New Church Life," Bryn Athyn, Pa. (monthly).
NCM - "New Church Magazine," London (monthly).
NJM - "New Jerusalem Magazine," London (monthly).
NKT - "Nya Kyrkans Tidning," Stockholm (monthly).
NP - "The New Philosophy," Bryn Athyn, Pa. (quarterly).
OpQu - Opera Quaedam de Rebus Naturalibus. (Texts of Swedenborg's scientific works, published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, 1907, 1908, 1911.)
PsTr - Psychological Transactions, Philadelphia, 1920 (scientific texts).
RPs - Rational Psychology, Philadelphia, 1950.
SD - The Spiritual Diary.
SPT - Scientific and Philosophical Treatises,
Bryn Athyn, 1905, 1908.
Tafel - Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg, collected, translated and annotated by R. L. Tafel (London, 1875, 1877, Vols. I and II).
TCR - The True Christian Religion.
WE - The Word Explained.
WLG - The Worship and Love of God.

* * * * *


Chapter One:


1. By the present calendar the date of Swedenborg's birth would be February 9. The old style of the Julian calendar, then in use in Sweden, was 11 days behind.

2. The probability is that Swedenborg was born in the house on Regeringsgatan which now bears the number 22. The measurements of this lot are the same as those of the property purchased by Jesper Swedberg on May 30, 1690.

The law prescribed that a baptism must be performed before a week had passed, in the church, on a holiday, publicly, by the pastor of the parish. See articles by F. G. Lindh in NKT, 1914, p. 138 ff., 170 ff., 187 ff.; 1915, p. 7 ff., 42 ff., 120 ff.; 1921, p. 5; 1923, p. 134; and NCL, 1924, p. 402; NKT, 1921, 1922, 1923.

3. See JS, a general source of information for this and following chapters.

4. Letter to G. A. Beyer, Stockholm, Nov. 14, 1769. Tafel, II, 279-280. See also SD nos. 3317-3320, 3464. Tafel, II, 143-4.

5. Jesper Swedberg first met his nephew, Johan Moraeus, during a visit to Dalecarlia. Delighted with the youth's intelligence, he brought him to Stockholm and apprenticed him to the city apothecary. After studies at Upsala, Moraeus became the pupil of Boerhaave of Leyden. There is a portrait of Moraeus at "Sweden" where his daughter's marriage to Carl Linnaeus was celebrated in 1739. See H. D. Sporing, Johannis Moraei Äreminne, Stockholm, 1743, pp. 14, 18,21.

6. See G, IV, 346-351.

7. Upsala University archives. See CLD, no. 3a ff.

Chapter Two: 


8. A. Wolf, René Descartes in Encyclop. Brit. (14th ed.), Vol. VII, pp. 244253, and A. H. Stroh, The Cartesian Controversy at Upsala, Heidelberg, 1908 (Sonderabdriick aus den Verhandlungen des III Internationale Kongresses für Philosophie).

9. A. H. Stroh, Grunddragen av Swedenborgs lif, Stockholm, 1908, p. 14 ff. 10. Sweden is divided into provinces or "landscapes." In the universities the students from a given province are grouped together into self-governing clubs. See Upsala University archives, CLD, no. 4 ff.

11. Compare the Catalog of Studies in the library of Upsala University, translated and annotated by E. S. Price in NP, 1931-1935, and the Protocols and account books of Westmanland-Dala Nation, Upsala.

12. Original text in Opera Poetica Emanuelis Swedenborgii, Stockholm, 1910, pp. 1-3.

13. See G, IV, 92, and JS, 242.

14. Tafel, I, 18 and protocols as above, note 11.


Diligently read and reflect on the Word of God.
Be content with God's Providence and its dispensations.
Observe a proper behavior and keep your conscience pure.
Obey what is commanded, attend faithfully to your office and duties, and in addition be useful to society in general. 
    (Attributed by S. Sandel to Swedenborg.)

15. See dedication to Benzelius of Swedenborg's book, The Infinite, etc., London edn., 1908, p. 3. L, p. 198, 14, 112.

16. Protocols of Westmanland-Dala Nation. See Constitutiones DalecarloVestmannicae, Upsala, 1910.

17. Biskop Rhyzelii Anteckningar, ed. Stockholm, 1901, p. 49.

18. Tafel, I, 57. See the list and analysis of portraits of Swedenborg by A. II. Stroh, in J. V. Hultkrantz, The Mortal Remains of E. Swedenborg, Upsala, 1910, p. 92 ff.

19. L. Annaei Senecae et Pub. Syri Mimi ... Publico examini modeste submittit Emanuel Swedberg, Upsala, 1709.

20. See IR, 1842, p. 60-62 (n. ser.).

Chapter Three:


21. See L, p. 2-4.

22. See G, V, 183 ff.

23. Translation by F. Barham in J. J. G. Wilkinson, Emanuel Swedenborg, a Biography, London, 1886, p. 10-11.

24. See L, p. 9. The skeleton of Swedenborg's whale is now preserved in the Museum of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. See A. G. Nathorst, Emanuel Swedenborg as a Geologist, Introduction to Vol. I, OPQu, p. xxv ff.

25. See L, p. 7.

26. S. E. Bring, Christopher Polhem and see G, V, 587 ff.

27. "Morning Light," London, 1914, p. 161. See L, p. 9-10 and Tafel, I, 205-6, where the second paragraph is translated in the past tense. Text in OpQu, I, p. 205.

Chapter Four:


28. Resebeskrivningar af E. Swedenborg (journals of Travel), Stockholm, 1910, p. 3. See Tafel, II, 3-4.

29. See L, pp. 10-43.

30. Andreas Hesselii Anmärkningar om Amerika, 1711-1724, ed. by N. Jacobsson, Upsala, 1938, p. 12, 44-45. See also translation by Amandus Johnson, The Journal of Andreas Hesselius, Philadelphia, 1947.

31. Tafel, I, 222.

32. The English poem by Dr. William Strode is entitled "Chlois Walking in the Snow" It was published as no. 180 in Wit's Recreations, London, 1640, and often reprinted. See James Hyde, A Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg, London, 1906, p. 13.

33. Translations by Frank Sewall, NP, 1916, pp. 209-11 ff.

34. Von Höpken to Tuxen, Tafel, II, 407.

35. Tafel, II, 257. Letter to Beyer, Nov. 11, 1766. 36. See L, p. 52.

37. Ibid., p. 56 ff.

38. Camena Borea, Greifswalde, 1715.

39. Ludus Heliconicus, Greifswalde, 1715.

40. Festivus Applausus in Caroli XII in Pomeraniam suam adventum (Festival Ode to Charles XII). See A. H. Stroh, The Swedenborg Archives, Part I, Stockholm, 1912, p. 27, 36.

41. As in note 28, above, p. 4.

42. Opera Poetica, 1910. Translation by S. Stockwell in IR, 1844, p. 147. See NCL, 1905, p. 739.

Chapter Five:


43. SPT, I, pp. 23-55.

44. L, p. 75 ff.

45. L, p. 91 ff.

46. L, p. 92 ff.

47. L, p. 95 ff.

48. L, p. 106.

49. L, pp. 73-4.

50. Daedalus Hyperboreus, eller några nya mathematiska och physicaliska försök (The Northern inventor, or some new experiments in mathematics and physics), Upsala, 1716-1718.

51. Suggestions for a Flying Machine, a translation from the above by H. Lj. Odhner and C. T. Odhner, Philadelphia, 1910. See also G. Genzlinger, The Mechanical Inventions of E. Swedenborg, in NP, 1940, p. 257 ff.

52. C. Polhem, Ungdoms heder, mandoms nytta, ålderdoms nöje (arithmetic), Upsala, 1716. See L, 87, 150.

53. See notes of A. H. Stroh in CLD, no. 157a. 54. L, p. 117 ff.

55. SPT, I, p. 3 ff. 56. L, p. 113 ff.

57. See NCL, 1924, p. 404, no. 9.

58. L, p.122.

Chapter Six:


59. Underrättelse om thet förtenta Stjernsunds arbete (Information about the Stjernsund tinware, etc.), Stockholm, 1717. See Tafel, II, 889.

60. See G, V, 270.

61. J. Swedberg to B. Cederholm, Nov. 20, 1716. See NCL, 1924, p. 6.

62. NCL, 1896, pp. 151-2.

63. See L, p. 145 ff.

64. L, p. 128 ff.; G. Nordberg, Karl den XII, Stockholm, 1740, II, 599-602, containing Swedenborg's letter. See Tafel, I, 558.

En ny Räknekonst (ms.) (A New System of Reckoning), Philadelphia, 1941.

65. Tafel, I, 275, note.

66. S. E. Bring: Christopher Polhem, p. 512, and G, V, 316, 320-21, 639.

67. Regelkonsten, författad i Tijo Böcker (The Science of Algebra), Upsala, 1718. Ms. translation by E. R. Cronlund in the Academy Library, Bryn Athyn, Pa. It has been pointed out that Swedenborg's book on algebra does not contain anything particularly new or valuable, and has many typographical errors and other defects. It was never in common use as a textbook in Swedish schools. Nevertheless, it is admitted that in it he solved a large number of problems in geometry and trigonometry, as well as those involved in surveying, weighing, the movements of projectiles and other subjects which could be solved only with great difficulty by the usual methods. See Gustav Eneström : Emanuel Swedenborg såsom Matimatiker in K. V. A. Handlingar, Bd. 15, Stockholm, 1890, and Swedenborg's Place in the History of Science, a review, in NP, 1934, p. 268 ff.

68. From transcripts of records in the Swedish War Office, in the Academy Library, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

69. Bring, Polhem, op. cit., p. 636.

70. G. Berggren, "Swedenborg as Engineer." See article on Transportation of Galleys, NP, 1926, p. 6 ff.

Chapter Seven:


71. See "Morning Light," London, 1914, p. 162.

72. JD, p. 14, no. 14.

73. Tafel, II, 437, no. 18; Tafel, I, 628 ff.; 43, no. 35, 36; 49 ff.

74. SD, 6025; Tafel, I, 634, note 29 ff.

75. Carl Robsahm, a friend and neighbor, says in his memoirs that Swedenborg, in his youth, had a lady-love whom he gave up when she became unfaithful to him. This passage, which has been variously translated and interpreted refers, we think, to the same circumstance. It seems to have been the scholar's customary answer when people asked him why he had never married. Tafel, I, 43. See, however, note 718.

76. The text reads: "Alsta Polhems doter är förlofwad til konungens Hoffjunkare benämd Mannerström, jag undrar hwad folcket therom talar, som thet är min beställning; then andra hans doter är i mitt tycke mycket wackrare." OpQu, I, p. 286. Tafel renders the passage: "I wonder what people will say about this inasmuch as she was engaged to me." Tafel, I, 303. Acton differs with the above, translating it: "I wonder what people will say about it, since it is my post" L, 193. Compare Jesper Swedberg's use of the word "beställning" in the following passage: (Beskriver hur han ställte om en prest, befordrat til ett gott pastorat Dahla wid namn) : "Så mycket om min beställning om prest och församling i Lissabon." JS, p. 271.

77. Tafel, I, 50-51, no. 54.
It was not until 1723 that Emerentia Polhem married the widower Reinhold Ruckerskbld, and during the five preceding years Swedenborg had apparently no contact with the Polhem family. Emerentia probably met her future husband in Dalecarlia, where she resided with her father. She died in 1760, the mother of nine children and the manager of a large estate. She evidently was on friendly terms with Swedenborg, for her name occurs again later in his story. (See p. 351.) Emerentia eventually took over the Stjernsund property. She built a stately mansion that is still standing. Unfortunately, while the house was under construction, she fell from a scaffolding and was crippled for her remaining life. See the legend about "Emerentia's Crutches" in NCL, 1927, p. 8.

78. The text reads: ". . . få se om icke jag får lof at följa til Norge." OpQu, I, 287. Tafel translates it: "I will see if I cannot get leave to follow [the army] to Norway." Tafel, I, 304. Acton has: ". . . will see if I cannot get leave to go with it to Norway." L, 199, also note 5, and p. 202.

79. See SD, 4704, and other numbers. Tafel, I, 602-4. See article in "Svenska Dagbladet," 1947, Nov. 30. Tafel, I, 558 ff.

80. Tafel, 1, 306-7, 285.

81. L, 175 ff. Bring, Polhem, p. 53. ,

82. On Jordenes och Planetenes Gång och Stånd, Skara, 1719.

83. Beskrifning öfver Svenska Masugnar och deras Blåsningar (Description of Swedish iron furnaces and the processes for smelting iron). Ms. in the archives of the Board of Mines. See Noraskogs arkiv, Stockholm, 1903, pp. 201232. See Tafel, I, pp. 404-5.

84. NKT, 1917, p. 43; 1903, p. 138.

85. Nya Anledningar til Grufwors Igenfinnande . . . Ms. in the Diocesan Library, Linköping. Translation in SPT, I, pp. 69-82. See NCL, 1907, p. 100; 1908, pp. 234-6 and Transactions of the Geological Society, Stockholm, Dec. 1907, reference to Professor Barvir of Prague, in 1906, demonstrating the possibility of using the photography of radiation for the discovery of mineral deposits.

86. L, pp. 174-5. See also L, p. 224.

Chapter Eight:


87. Memorial on Currency, NCL, 1924, p. 7. L, pp. 204-311.

88. Om Wattnens Högd och Förra Werldens starka Ebb och Flod, Bewis utur Swerige, Upsala, 1719. Translation in SPT; I, 23 ff.

89. Morning Light, London, 1914, p. 204. The device, taken from the idea of mining and the episcopal function, features two silver keys, a black volcano and a golden lion.

90. Height of Water, preface. See note 88.

91. The letter was to Jacob ā Melle, who referred to Swedenborg's explanation of fossil remains in his: De Lapidibus Figuratis, Lybeck, 1720, this being the first appearance of Swedenborg's name before the learned world.

92. A. G. Nathorst: Emanuel Swedenborg as a Geologist, Introduction to Vol. I, OpQu.

93. Anatomi of vår aldrafinaste Natur Ms. in Diocesan library, Linköping. Only Chapters I-IV and XIII of this essay have been preserved. Translated by C. Th. Odhner under the title, Tremulation, Boston, 1899.

94. Daedalus Hyperboraeus, VI, 10-14.

95. Tafel, I, 314, 310, note; 318-19.

96. Preface to the work on Tremulation. See note 93.

97. To E. Benzelius, L, pp. 224, 215.

Chapter Nine:


98. Tafel, I, 375. Brunsbo, April 20, 1724.

99. See L, pp. 236-8.

100. Om eldens och fergornas natur, ms. in Linköping diocesan library. Translation, SPT, I, 11-17.

101. De Causis rerum, ms. as above.

102. See A. H. Stroh: The Sources of Swedenborg's Early Philosophy of Nature, OpQu, III, Introduction, p. xxiv ff. Descartes: Principia, XIII.

103. To E. Benzelius. Tafel, I, 296-7.

104. NKT, 1917, p. 43.

105. The resolution to write in another language than Swedish should surprise no one who has perused Swedenborg's early works in the original. Swedish, a language almost without equal for the expression of warm, homely social feelings and songs, has never lent itself gracefully to blending with Latin derivatives, as English so successfully has done. In Swedish, foreign words ending in "era" and "ation" stand out stiffly from the vernacular. Even the spelling had not yet crystallized into shape and was at this time the subject of a violent controversy between Bishop Swedberg and his friend of former days, Urban Hjärne. These venerable masters were going at each other hammer and tongs in the effort to promote each his own kind of spelling reform.

106. L, p. 247.

107. L, p. 255.

Chapter Ten:


108. Prodromus Principiorum Rerum Naturalium . . . sive Novorum Tentaminum Chymiam et Physicam, Amsterdam, 1721. Translated by C. E. Strutt, London, 1847, as Chemistry.

109. Tafel, I, 329-330. See L, p. 260.

110. Miscellanea Observata circa Res Naturalis . . . Leipzig and Hamburg, 1722.

111. Acta Eruditorum, Leipzig, Feb., 1722, pp. 83-7. Translation in NP, 1929, p. 74.

112. See Svante Arrhenius : Emanuel Swedenborg as a Cosmologist, Introduction to Vol. II, OpQu.

113. A. II. Stroh, Introduction to Vol. III, OpQu.

114. Bring, Polhem, pp. 66-7.

115. Chemistry, London, 1847. Introduction.

116. Chemistry, pp. 6-7.

117. Bring, Polhem, pp. 66, 69.

118. See L, pp. 219-222.

Chapter Eleven:


119. L, p. 266.

120. Tafel, I, 189.

121. F. G. Lindh, Swedenborgs ekonomi, NKT, 1927, p. 97 ff., 117 ff.; 1928, p. 113 ff.; 1929, p. 1 ff., 25 ff., 65 ff., 85 ff.

122. Methodus nova inveniendi Longitudines Locorum . . . Amsterdam, 1721.

123. NP, 1929, pp. 86-7, 118.

124. NP, 1929, p. 92 ff.

125. Miscellaneous Observations, London, 1847, p. 85.

126. TCR, no. 20.

127. NP, 1929, pp. 99-107.

128. Translated in SPT, I, 91-96. See Misc. Obs., p. 78, 82ff. as in note 125.

129. See The Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress, London, 1910, p. 7, and A. H. Stroh, Relation of Modern Science to Swedenborgs Principles of Nature . . . Stockholm, 1904, p. 35. "It is to him [Swedenborg] we are indebted," says Dumas, "for the first idea of making cubes, tetrahedrons, pyramids and the different crystalline forms, by grouping of spherical particles; and it is an idea that has since been renewed by several distinguished men." See J. J. G. Wilkinson: Swedenborg, a Biographical Sketch, p. 25.

130. L, p. 333 ff.

Chapter Twelve:


131. Oförgripliga Tankar om Svenska Myntets förnedring och förhögning, Stockholm, 1722. Not translated. See L, pp. 204-211.

132. To Z. Strömberg. OpQu, I, 310-311; L, 279-280.

133. Anders Chydenius: Rikets Hielp genom en naturlig finance-system, Stockholm, 1766. NP, 1929, p. 121; and Omständeligt Swar, 1765,, p. 164. Reprinted in Chydenius Politiska Skrifter, 1880.

134. In the State Archives, Stockholm. 1723 Åhrs Acter, Commercie Deputations Handlingar, no. 36 Uhrskillnings-deputation (1723:51), pp. 2-22; Protokoller och Acter (1723:35), p. 23. ACSD. Translation of extract in Bulletin of the Sons of the Academy, Bryn Athyn, 1919, p. 198.

135. See L, pp. 289-96. 

136. NP, 1945, p. 191. 

137. See L, pp. 301-3. 

138. See CLD for 1722, ff. Carl Sahlin in his Valsverk inom den Svenske Metalliesgiska industrico, Stockholm, 1934,. attributes, to Swedenborg the first impulse for establishment of the Swedish rolling-mills. See NP, 1950, pp. 2-3. 

139. See above, note 133.

Chapter Thirteen:


139a. See Bokwetts Gillets Protokoller, Upsala, 1723.

140. Swedenborg to Benzelius. See L, p. 334. Other references to Swedenborgs impediment in speech. Tafel, II, 695 (Okely); I, 34 (Robsahm); I, 57 (Pernety) ; II, 545 (Shearsmith).

141. See Assessor Swedenborg, his association with the College of Mines, by S. C. Odhner [Sigstedt] in NCL, 1927, pp. 225-33.

142. Harald Carlborg, Swedenborgs Work on Iron, reviewed, NP, 1926, p. 36 ff. 143. G, VI, 330-31. Extract translated from Carl von Linné, Ungdomsresar, I, 1729, p. 175 ff.

144. See transcript in ACSD from the archives of the Board of Mines. L, p. 339, and Tafel, I, 610.

145. SD, 5837. See also Swedenborgs Drömmar, edited by G. E. Klemming, Stockholm, 1860, pp. 72-3. Here the reference is ascribed to "E.B.", instead of "L.B." (Lars Benzelstierna).

146. For further study of this subject see L, p. 339 ff., and the material in ACSD.

Chapter Fourteen: 


147. See the minutes of the Society of Sciences, p. 107, in Upsala University Library; and Tafel, I, 339-340.

148, JS, I; pp. 279, 286, and elsewhere. See Records of the Westmanland-Dala Nation, Nov. 18, 1705. Extracts in ACSD.

149. Jesper Swedenborg is, however, the author of a curious book entitled Den Sista Basunen öfver Tyskland (The Last Trumpet over Germany). This book contains some prophecies about the destruction of Europe from an eastern invasion, quite startling in view of later events. The deplorable condition of the world, said the author, has resulted from the Evangelical Churches' having taken the Bible only as to its literal meaning! See NKT, 1921, pp. 49-51 ff.

150. Om Jränet, Stockholm, 1923; p. 98. See notes 142 and 184.

151. Especially had the voyage been hard on Andreas' young American wife who died after their arrival in London, leaving 'four little children, the youngest only eight weeks old. Five days later the travellers embarked on a vessel that took them to Sweden. Among Hesselius' children was one who had been born at Christina, for whom Emanuel Swedenborg had stood godfather in absentia, and who, after him was called "Emanuel." See Records of Holy Trinity Church (Old Swedes), Wilmington, Delaware from 1697 to 1773. Published by the Historical Society of Delaware, 1890, p. 243.

Hesselius had left two of his brothers in America - Samuel, who served as pastor for the Wicacoa (Philadelphia) congregation,. including Upper Merion, Pennypack Creek, Neshamina and adjoining districts; and Gustaf, who served the new country as map-maker. Gustaf Hesselius was a fine artist and came to be known as "the father of American painting." His large canvas of the Holy Supper, the first altarpiece done in the New World, now hangs in the American-Swedish Historical Museum. Like his younger brother Johan, Andreas was interested in natural science and had brought with him from America fine collections which were later added to the Upsala Museum. His manuscript description of New Sweden, recently published in English translation, contains a wealth of entertaining observations on New World flora and fauna. See note 30.

152. Tafel, I, 374-5.

153. Ibid., I, 342-3.

154. Ibid., I, 350.

155. This interesting addition to Swedenborgiana was discovered by Professor Herman Lundström in the Diocesan Library of Skara, and published in Kyrkohistorisk Årsskrift, 1915, pp. 275-8, from which it was reprinted in NKT, 1917, p. 41.

Stina Maja's portrait may be seen at the manor house at Sandemar.

156. Tafel, I, 343.

157. L, p. 146, 164.

158. L, p. 65.

159. Minutes of the Board of Mines, Oct. 11, 1731. Transcript ACSD.

Chapter Fifteen:


160. Principia Rerum Naturalium ab experimentis et geometria sive ex posteriori et priori educta, ms. Text in OpQu, II. See the reference to this work in a letter of Nov. 27, 1729. L, p. 436. R. W. Brown, A general Comparison of Swedenborg's Posthumous or "Lesser Principia," NP, 1913, p. 136 ff.

161. Principia, Part 1. Chapt. I. Emanuelis Swedenborgii Opera Philosophica et Mineralia (Philosophical and Metallurgical Works) 3 vols., Dresden and Leipzig, 1734. Vol. I, "Principia Rerum Naturalium . . " (The First Principles of Natural Things.)

162. Ibid., Part 1, Chapt. II.

163. Ibid., Part 3, Chapt. II, end.

164. Ibid., Part 3, Chapt. IV.

165. Taking the latter estimate, a water particle or "sixth finite" would contain 1018 (or one quintillion) original points of energy - a figure suggestive of the mathematics of modern physics! According to Lecomte du Noüy, one cubic centimeter of gas is computed to contain 1019 molecules. See Human Destiny, p. 32, New York, 1947.

166. NP, 1946, p. 284; 1948, p. 208 ff. See also J. W. Stockwell, Inside the Atom, modern theories and Swedenborg's "Principia"; NP, 1922, p, 292, ff. E. Allen, Presidential Address, NP, 1948, p. 219. Isaiah Tansley in the Introduction to the Principia, London, 1912, p. L.C. R. Pendleton, Vortices, NP, 1945, p. 155 ff.; Wilfred Howard, Some Reflections on Atomic Energy and the Atom, NCL, 1951, p. 263 ff.

167. SPT, I, pp. 71-82.

168. See Radium in connection with Swedenborg's Doctrine of Architectonic Units and their Spheres, by Lillian Beekman in NP, 1904, p. 113 ff.; 1905, p. 154 ff.

169. TCR, 499.

170. Svante Arrhenius, Emanuel Swedenborg as a Cosmologist, Introduction to Vol. II, OpQu. See also note 569.

171. Hans Hoppe, Emanuel Swedenborg's Cosmogony and the Theory of Kant and Laplace, translated from "Arkiv für Geschichte der Philosophie," Band I., pp. 53-68. In NCM, 1912, pp. 385-94; 446-56.

172. Principia, translation by A. Clissold, London, 1846. Vol. II, Part 3, Chapt. I, pp. 238-9.

Chapter Sixteen:


173. Journal of Travel, Tafel, II, 5-8.

174. See George Trobridge, A Life of Emanuel Swedenborg, London and New York, 1913, Chapt. III, end.

175. Tafel, II, 8-22.

176. According to Wolff, everything can be reduced to a simple substance which Leibnitz called "monads," non-extended but all differing in qualities. They communicated by a "pre-established harmony." Swedenborg seems to have adopted the term "simple" from Wolff. See Hugo Lj. Odhner, Christian Wolf and Swedenborg, NP, 1951, p. 237 ff. In July, 1736, Swedenborg saw a copy of Wolff's Natural Theology. The subject is pursued further in Intercourse between the Soul and Body where Swedenborg reports a discussion on the nature of spiritual and natural "influx."

177. Prodromus de Infinito . . . , Dresden and Leipzig, 1734.

178. Tafel, II, 6.

179. "Deutsche Acta Eruditorum," Leipzig, Oct., 1734, pp. 407-420. NP, 1929, pp. 126-160; 161-192.

180. To Benzelius, Prästhyttan, Feb. 4, 1724. L, pp. 327-8.

181. L, pp. 455-6.

182. Freiburg, Nov. 21, 1732. L, pp. 449-50.

183. Traité sur l'Acier d'Alsace, ou l'Art de convertir le Fer de Fonte en acier, Strasbourg, 1737, pp. 61-115. "Traduction de quelques Chapitres tirés du Livre de M. Swedenborg . . ."

184. Traité de Fer par M. Swedenborg; traduit du Latin par M. Bouchu, 1762, in the fourth part of Art des Forges et Fourneaux ā Fer. (On p. 98 Swedenborg describes the forges on the "Skullkill & Delavare") Translated into Swedish Swedenborg Om Järnet, Stockholm, 1923, edited by Prof. Hj. Sjögren. See the review by Harald Carlborg, NP, 1926, p. 36 ff. Reference to appraisal by Dr. Carl Sahlin in Berghandteringens Vänner, Vol. xvi, p. 367.

185. Dr. Göran Nordberg, Charles XII's chaplain, was writing a biography of the late king, which he had been commissioned to do in 1731. Nordberg's account was taken partly from persons who had known the king, among them Swedenborg. In his letter, Swedenborg makes the statement that,he is still in possession of the mathematical paper given to him by King Charles, but the document has never been found. Nordberg's book was published in 1740 and translated into German, French and English. See The Gentleman's Magazine, London, 1754, p. 423. Tafel, I, pp. 558-565. See L, 458 ff.

186. Tafel, I, 483-493. See L, 466 ff.

187. Ibid., p. 485.

188. Transcripts and translations of documents relating to the Proceedings of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences on Swedenborg's works, in ACSD.

189. Tafel, I, 153.

"This portrait unhurt, in the midst of the ashes of burning,
  Lay, when at night the paternal domain was consumed.
So may thy name and thy loving remembrance, O father,
  Ever survive the flames and the funeral pile."

190. Tafel, I, 149.

191. J. Swedberg to J. Rosenadler, Brunsbo, Feb. 28, 1718. Tafel, I, 155-9.

192. Urban Hjärne to E. Benzelius, Nov. 26, 1718. See NCL, 1924, p. 8.

193. Jesper Swedberg to Swedenborg, March 1, 1731. L, pp. 443-4.

194. See JS.

195. Translation by S. Stockwell in IR, 1844, p. 147. Opera Poetica, 1910, pp. 25-27.