adapted from Samuel M. Warren, A Compendium of the Theological Writings
of Emanuel Swedenborg
  (Board of Publication of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem, New York 1875)

Table of Contents


A Compendium of the Theological Writings of
Emanuel Swedenborg (Revised)


Heaven is Divided into Two Kingdoms

Since there are infinite varieties in heaven, and no one society is exactly similar to another, nor indeed one angel to another, therefore heaven is distinguished generally, specifically, and particularly; generally into two kingdoms, specifically into three heavens, and particularly into innumerable societies. (HH n. 20)

There are angels who more and who less interiorly receive the Divine proceeding from the Lord. Those who more interiorly receive are called celestial angels; and those who receive less interiorly are called spiritual angels. Heaven is therefore distinguished into two kingdoms; of which one is called the Celestial Kingdom, the other the Spiritual Kingdom. (ibid. n. 21)

The love in which they are who are in the celestial kingdom is called celestial love; and the love in which they are who are in the spiritual kingdom is called spiritual love. Celestial love is love to the Lord; and spiritual love is charity towards the neighbor. And as all good is of love,--for what any one loves is good to him,—therefore the good also of one kingdom is called celestial, and the good of the other spiritual. It is evident from this in what these two kingdoms are distinguished; namely, that they are distinguished as the good of love to the Lord, and the good of charity towards the neighbor. And because the former good is more interior good, and the former love is more interior love, therefore the celestial angels are more interior and are called higher angels. (ibid. n. 23)

The angels in the Lord's celestial kingdom in wisdom and glory greatly excel the angels who are in the spiritual kingdom, because they receive the Divine of the Lord more interiorly; for they are in love to Him, and are therefore nearer and more closely conjoined to Him. These angels are such because they have received and do receive Divine truths immediately into the life, and not as the spiritual into previous memory and thought. They therefore have them inscribed on their hearts, and perceive them and as it were see them in themselves; nor do they ever reason about them, whether it be so or not so. They are such as are described in Jeremiah: "I will put my law in their mind, and write it in their heart. . . . They shall teach no more every man his friend and every man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah; they shall know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them" (xxxi. 33, 34). And they are called in Isaiah the "Taught of Jehovah" (liv. 13). That they who are taught of Jehovah are they who are taught of the Lord, the Lord Himself teaches in John vi. 45, 46. (ibid. n. 25)

Because there is such a distinction between the angels of the celestial kingdom and the angels of the spiritual kingdom, they are not together, nor have they intercourse with each other. There is only a communication by intermediate angelic societies, which are called celestial-spiritual; through these the celestial kingdom flows into the spiritual. Hence it is that although heaven is divided into two kingdoms, yet it makes one. The Lord always provides such intermediate angels, through whom there is communication and conjunction. (ibid. n. 27)

There are three Heavens

There are three heavens, and they are most distinct from each other; the inmost or third, the intermediate or second, and the ultimate or first. They follow and are related to each other as the highest part of man, which is called the head, his middle part, which is called the body, and his lowest which is called the feet; and as the highest, middle, and lowest parts of a house. In such order also is the Divine which proceeds and descends from the Lord. Hence, from a necessity of order, heaven is threefold.

The interiors of man, which are of his higher mind (mens) and lower mind (animus), are also in similar order; he has an inmost, an intermediate, and an ultimate. For all things of Divine order were brought together in man when he was created, so that he was made Divine order in form, and therefore heaven in its least image. As to his interiors therefore man also communicates with the heavens; and he likewise comes among the angels after death,—among the angels of the inmost heaven, or of the intermediate, or the ultimate heaven, according to his reception of Divine good and truth from the Lord while he lived in the world.

The Divine which flows in from the Lord and is received in the inmost or third heaven is called celestial, and the angels there are therefore called celestial angels. The Divine which flows in from the Lord and is received in the second or middle heaven is called spiritual, and therefore the angels who are there are called spiritual angels. And the Divine which flows in from the Lord and is received in the ultimate or first heaven is called natural. But as the natural of that heaven is not as the natural of the world, but has the spiritual and the celestial within it, that heaven is called spiritual and celestial-natural and hence the angels who are there are called spiritual and celestial-natural. Those are called spiritual-natural who receive influx from the intermediate or second heaven, which is the spiritual heaven; and those are called celestial-natural who receive influx from the third or inmost heaven, which is the celestial heaven. The spiritual-natural and the celestial-natural angels are distinct from each other; but yet they constitute one heaven, because they are in the same degree. (HH n. 29-31)

Because there is such a distinction, an angel of one heaven cannot enter among the angels of another heaven; nor can any one ascend from a lower heaven, or any one descend from a higher heaven. When the Lord elevates any from a lower heaven into a higher, that they may see the glory there, which is often done, they are first prepared, and encompassed by intermediate angels through whom there is communication. From these facts it is plain that the three heavens are most distinct from each other. (ibid. n. 35)

But although the heavens are so distinct that the angels of one heaven cannot associate with the angels of another heaven, yet the Lord conjoins all the heavens by immediate and mediate influx; by immediate influx from Himself into all the heavens, and by mediate influx from one heaven into another. And thus He effects that the three heavens are one, and that all, from the first to the last, are in connection; even so that nothing is unconnected. Whatever is not connected by intermediates with the first does not subsist, but is dissipated and becomes nothing. (ibid. n. 37)

The Heavens were not Three before the Lord's Advent

Before the Lord's advent heaven was not distinguished into three heavens,—that is into an inmost or third, an intermediate or second, and an ultimate or first heaven,—as after the Lord's advent, but was one. As yet the spiritual heaven was not. The region where the spiritual heaven was about to be was occupied by those who were in falsity and evil, but who could be kept in some truth and good by external means,—especially by ideas of eminence and dignity; in like manner as is the case in the world, where they who are in evil and falsity are yet obliged as it were to think and speak truths, and as it were to will and do goods, by external means, such as honours and gains. The reason why that region of heaven was then occupied by such was that the good were wanting, and they who were of the spiritual church were not yet prepared; and yet it must everywhere be filled with spirits, in order that there might be a continuity from the Lord even to man, for if there had not been a continuity man would have perished. There are at this day also some regions of heaven occupied by such; [It is important to understand that when the work was published from which this extract is taken, the Last Judgment (see p. 704) had not yet taken place.] but they who are there are withheld by a strong force from doing evil.... These regions are thus occupied when the evil are increased in the world, and the good are diminished. For then evil spirits draw near to man, and good spirits recede from him; and in proportion as they recede the regions nearest to man are occupied by the evil. When this comes to pass generally the inhabitants of these regions are changed. This takes place when the church is near its end; for then evil and falsity prevail. But at about the end of the church they are cast down, and the regions occupied are given to the good who in the meantime have been prepared for heaven.[See p. 156.] This is meant by these words in the Apocalypse: "There was war in, heaven,; Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, but prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven" (xii. 7, 8). (AC n. 8054)

In each Heaven There are Innumerable Societies

The angels of each heaven are not assembled together in one place, but distinguished into societies greater and smaller, according to the differences of the good of love and faith in which they are. Those that are in similar good form one society. Goods in the heavens are infinite in variety; and each angel is such as his own good. The angelic societies in the heavens are also distant from each other according as their goods differ generally and specifically. For in the spiritual world distances are from no other origin than from a difference of state of the interiors. Therefore in the heavens they are from a difference in the states of love; they that differ much are widely distant, and they that differ little are but little distant. Similarity brings them together.

In one society all are in like manner distinct from each other; those who are more perfect, that is who excel in good, and therefore in love, wisdom and intelligence, are in the midst; those who less excel are round about them, at a distance increasing by degrees as they diminish in perfection. It is as light decreasing from a centre to the circumferences. Those who are in the midst are in fact in the greatest light; and those who dwell towards the circumferences, in less and less.

Like, as it were of themselves, are brought to like; for with their like they are as with their own, and at home; but with others they are as with strangers, and abroad. When they are with their like they are also in their freedom, and therefore in every delight of life.

From this it is plain that good consociates all in the heavens, and that they are distinguished according to its quality. And yet it is not the angels that thus consociate themselves, but the Lord, from whom is good. He leads them, conjoins them, distinguishes them, and keeps them in freedom so far as they are in good; and thus preserves every one in the life of his love, of his faith, of his intelligence and wisdom, and thereby in happiness.

All who are in similar good also know each other,—although they have never seen each other before,—just as men in the world know their kindred, their relations, and their friends. The reason is that in the other life there are no kindreds, relationships and friendships but such as are spiritual, thus which are of love and faith. This it has sometimes been given me to see, when I have been in the spirit and thus withdrawn from the body, and so in company with angels. Some of them have then appeared as if known to me from infancy; and others as if entirely unknown. Those who appeared as if I had known them from infancy, were such as were in a state similar to the state of my spirit; and those who were not known were in a dissimilar state. (HH n. 41-46)

The larger societies consist of myriads of angels, the less of some thousands, and the least of some hundreds. There are also angels who dwell apart, as it were house by house, and family by family. Although they live thus dispersed, yet they are arranged in a similar manner as those who dwell in societies; that is, the wiser of them are in the midst, and the more simple upon the boundaries. These are more nearly under the Divine auspices of the Lord, and are the best of the angels. (ibid. n. 50)

The Universal Heaven is in the Form of a Man

That heaven in its whole complex resembles a man, is an arcanum not yet known in the world; but in the heavens it is very well known. To know this, and the specific and particular things concerning it, is a chief part of the intelligence of the angels there. On this indeed many other things depend, which without it as their general principle would not enter distinctly and clearly into the ideas of their mind. Because they know that all the heavens together with their societies resemble a man, they also call heaven THE GREATEST, and THE DIVINE MAN; Divine, from the fact that the Divine of the Lord makes heaven. {HH n. 59)

The angels do not indeed see heaven in its whole complex in such a form, for the whole heaven does not fall into the view of any angel. But they sometimes see remote societies, which consist of many thousands of angels, as one in such a form; and from a society, as from a part, they form a conclusion as to the whole, which is heaven. For in the most perfect form things general are as the parts, and the parts as the general; the only distinction is as between similar things greater and less. Hence they say that the whole heaven is in such a form in the sight of the Lord; because the Divine, from the inmost and supreme, sees all things.

Because heaven is such it is therefore also governed by the Lord as a man, and hence as one; for it is known that although a man consists of an innumerable variety of things, both in the whole and in part,—in the whole, of members, organs, and viscera, in part, of series of fibres, nerves, and blood-vessels,—thus of members within members and parts within parts, yet when a man acts he nevertheless acts as one. Such also is heaven under the auspices and guidance of the Lord.

That so many various things in a man act as one is because there is nothing there that does not some thing for the common weal, or that does not perform a use. The whole performs use to its parts, and the parts perform use to the whole; for the whole is from the parts, and the parts constitute the whole. They therefore provide for each other, have respect to each other, and are conjoined in such form that each and all things have reference to the whole and its good. Hence it is that they act as one. Such are the consociations in the heavens; they are there conjoined in similar form according to uses. Any therefore who do not perform a use to the whole are cast out of heaven, because they are heterogeneous.

Because the whole heaven resembles a man, and also is a Divine spiritual man in the greatest form, even as to figure, therefore heaven as a man is distinguished into members and parts; and they are also named in like manner. The angels also know in what member one society is, and in what another; and they say, that this society is in the member or in some province of the head, this in the member or in some province of the breast, that in the member or in some province of the loins, and so on. In general, the highest or third heaven forms the head as far as the neck; the intermediate or second heaven forms the breast down to the loins and knees; the ultimate or first heaven forms the feet down to the soles, and also the arms to the fingers; for the arms and hands are ultimates of a man, although at the sides. From this again it is evident why there are three heavens. (ibid. n. 62-65)

Because heaven in the whole and in part resembles a many from the Divine Human of the Lord, the angels say that they are in the Lord, and same that they are in His body; by which they mean that they are in the good of His love. As indeed the Lord Himself teaches, saying:—"Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, no. more can ye, except ye abide in Me; . . . for without Me ye can do nothing. . . . Continue ye in My love. If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love" (John xv. 4-10). (ibid. n. 81)

The Correspondence of Heaven with all things of Man

In general the celestial kingdom corresponds to the heart, and to all things of the heart in the whole body; and the spiritual kingdom to the lungs, and to all things of them in the whole body. The heart and the lungs constitute two kingdoms also in man; the heart governs therein by the arteries and veins, and the lungs by the nervous and moving fibres,—both, in every force and action. In every man there are two kingdoms also in his spiritual world, which is called his spiritual man; one is the kingdom of the will, and the other of the understanding. The will governs by affections for good, and the understanding by affections for truth. These kingdoms also correspond to the kingdoms of the heart and lungs in the body. So in the heavens. The celestial kingdom is the will principle of heaven, and therein the good of love reigns; and the spiritual kingdom is the intellectual principle of heaven, and therein truth reigns. These are what correspond to the functions of the heart and of the lungs in man. It is from this correspondence that in the Word the heart signifies the will, and also the good of love; and the breath of the lungs signifies the understanding, and the truth of faith. Hence also it is that the affections are ascribed to the heart, although they are not there nor thence.

The correspondence of the two kingdoms of heaven with the heart and lungs is the general correspondence of heaven with man. But there is a less general correspondence with his particular members, organs, and viscera; what the nature of this is shall also be explained. They who are in the head in the Greatest Man, which is heaven, excel all others in every good; for they are in love, peace, innocence, wisdom, intelligence, and thence in joy and happiness. These flow into the head and into the things in man which belong to the head and correspond to them. Those who are in the breast in the Greatest Man, which is heaven, are the good of charity and faith; and these also flow into the breast of man, and correspond to it. And those who are in the loins and in the organs dedicated to generation there, in the Greatest Man or heaven, are in conjugial love. Those who are in the feet are in the ultimate good of heaven, which good is called natural-spiritual. Those who are in the arms and hands are in the power of truth from good. Those who are in the eyes are in understanding. Those who are in the ears are in hearing and obedience. Those who are in the nostrils are in perception. Those who are in the mouth and tongue are in discourse from understanding and perception. Those who are in the kidneys, are in truth that is searching, separating, and corrective. Those who are in the liver, pancreas, and spleen, are in the various purification of good and truth. So in a different manner with the other organs. These flow into the like parts in man, and correspond to them. The influx of heaven is into the functions and uses of the members; and the uses, because they are from the spiritual world, give themselves form by means of such things as are in the natural world, and thus present themselves in effect. Hence is the correspondence.

It is from this that similar things are signified by these same members, organs, and viscera, in the Word; for all things therein have a signification according to their correspondences. By the head is therefore signified intelligence and wisdom; by the breast, charity; by the loins, conjugial love; by the arms and hands, the power of truth; by the feet, the natural; by the eyes, the understanding; by the nostrils, perception; by the ears, obedience; by the kidneys, examination of truth; and so on. Hence also it is that it is usual for a man to' say of one who is intelligent and wise; that he has a head; of one who is in charity, that he is a bosom friend; of one who excels in perception, that he has a quick scent; of one who is intelligent, that he has a keen sight; of one who is in power, that he has long arms; of one who purposes from love, that he does it from the heart. These and many other things that are in human speech, are from correspondence; for such forms of speech, although man is ignorant of it, are from the spiritual world. (HH n. 95-97)

But although all things of man as regards his body correspond to all things of heaven, yet man is not an image of heaven as to his external form, but as to his internal form; for the interiors of man receive heaven, and his exteriors receive the world. So far therefore as his interiors receive heaven, a man as to them is a heaven in the least form, after the image of the greatest. But in so far as his interiors do not receive he is not a heaven and an image of the greatest; and yet his exteriors which receive the world may be in form according to the order of the world, and hence in various beauty. For external beauty, which is of the body, derives its cause from parents, and from formation in the womb, and is afterwards preserved by a common influx from the world. Hence it is that the form of the natural man differs exceedingly from the form of his spiritual man. It has sometimes been shown me what the spirit of a man was in form; and it was seen that in some who were of beautiful and lovely countenance the spirit was deformed, black, and monstrous,—so that you would call it an image of hell, not of heaven. And in some who were not beautiful, the spirit was comely, beautiful and angelic. After death the spirit of a man actually appears such as it had been in the body while he lived in the world. (ibid. n. 99)

The Correspondence of Heaven with all things on Earth

Nothing ever comes into existence and subsists without correspondence with the Greatest Man, that is with heaven, or, what is the same with the spiritual world; for the reason that it would have no connection with anything prior to itself, nor consequently with the First, that is with the Lord. Anything unconnected and thus independent cannot even for one moment subsist; for that a thing subsists is from its connection with and dependence upon that from which is every thing of existence, since subsistence is perpetual existence. Hence it is that not only each and all things in man correspond, but also each and all things in the universe. The sun itself corresponds, and also the moon; for in heaven the Lord is the sun, and likewise the moon. The sun's flame and heat, and also light, correspond; for it is the Lord's love towards the whole human race to which the flame and heat, and Divine truth to which light corresponds. The very stars correspond; it is to the societies of heaven and their habitations that they correspond; not that they are there, but that they are in such order. Whatever appears beneath the sun corresponds; as each and all the subjects of the animal kingdom, and also each and all the subjects of the vegetable kingdom; which, individually and collectively, would sink and fall in ruins in a moment, if there were not an influx into them from the spiritual world. This also it has been given me to know by much experience; for it was shown me with what in the spiritual. world many things that are in the animal kingdom, and still more that are in the vegetable kingdom, correspond; and also that they can in nowise subsist without influx. For if the prior be taken away, the posterior necessarily falls; so if the prior be separated from the posterior. (AC n. 5377)

It shall be briefly stated how the conjunction of heaven with the world by correspondences is effected. The kingdom of the Lord is a kingdom of ends, which are uses; or what is the same, a kingdom of uses, which are ends. Therefore the universe was so created and formed by the Divine that uses may everywhere be clothed with such things as present them in act or in effect, —in heaven first, and then in the world; thus, by degrees and in succession down to the ultimates of nature. It is therefore plain that the correspondence of natural things with spiritual or of the world with heaven is through uses, and that uses conjoin them; and that the forms with which uses are clothed are correspondences, and are conjunctions, in so far as they are forms of the uses. In the nature of the world, in its threefold kingdom, all things that exist therein according to order are forms of uses, or effects formed from use for use. From this cause the things that are therein are correspondences. (HH n. 112)

The Sun and Moon in Heaven

The sun of the world does not appear in heaven, nor any thing which is from that sun, because all this is natural; for with that sun nature begins, and whatever is produced by means of it is called natural. But the spiritual [world], in which heaven is, is above nature, and altogether distinct from the natural; nor do they communicate with each other except by correspondences.

But although the sun of the world does not appear in heaven, nor any thing from that sun, yet there is a sun in heaven, and there is light, and heat. The sun of heaven is the Lord; the light there is the Divine truth, and the heat there is the Divine good, which proceed from the Lord as a sun. All things that exist and appear in the heavens are from this origin. The reason why the Lord appears in heaven as a sun is, that He is Divine Love, from which all things spiritual exist; and also, by means of the sun of the world, all natural things. It is this love which shines as a sun.

The Lord appears as a sun, not in heaven, but high above the heavens; nor yet overhead or in the zenith, but before the faces of the angels, at a middle altitude. He appears, at a very great distance, in two places; in one before the right eye, in the other before the left eye. Before the right eye He appears exactly like a sun, of similar fire as it were, and of similar magnitude to the sun of the world. But before the left eye he does not appear as a sun but as a moon, of similar but more brilliant whiteness, and of similar magnitude to the moon of our earth; but this appears encompassed with several smaller moons as it were, each of which is similarly white and brilliant. The reason why the Lord appears in two places, with such a difference, is that He appears to every one according to the quality of his reception of Him; and therefore in one way to those who receive Him in the good of love, and in another to those who receive Him in the good of faith. To those who receive Him in the good of love He appears as a sun, fiery and flaming according to reception. They are in His celestial kingdom. But to those who receive Him in the good of faith He appears as a moon, white and brilliant according to reception. These are in His spiritual kingdom. The cause of this is, that the good of love corresponds to fire, and therefore fire in the spiritual sense is love; and the good of faith corresponds to light, and light also in the spiritual sense is faith. The reason why He appears before the eyes is, that the interiors, which are of the mind, see through the eyes; through the right eye from the good of love, and through the left eye from the good of faith. For with an angel, and also with a man, all things that are on the right side correspond to good from which is truth; and those on the left, to truth which is from good. The good of faith in its essence is truth from good.

Hence it is that the Lord as to love is compared to the sun, and as to faith to the moon, in the Word; and also that love from the Lord to the Lord is signified by the sun, and faith from the Lord in the Lord is signified by the moon. As in the following passages: "The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun, shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days" (Isaiah xxx. 26). "When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and make the stars thereof dark: I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine. All the bright lights in the heavens I will make dark over thee, and will set darkness upon thy land" (Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8) "I will darken the sun in its going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine" (Isaiah xiii. 10). "The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.... The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood" (Joel ii. 2, 10, 31; ch. iii. 15). "The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood, and the stars fell to the earth" (Apoc. vi. 12, 13). "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven'' (Matt. xxiv. 29 ); and in other places. By the sun in these passages love is signified, by the moon faith, and by stars cognitions of good and truth. These are said to be darkened, to lose their light, and to fall from heaven, when they no longer exist. That the Lord appears in heaven as a sun, is evident also from His actual transfiguration before Peter, James, and John, where it is said that "His face did shine as the sun" (Matt. xvii. 2). The Lord was thus seen by those disciples when they were withdrawn from the body, and were in the light of heaven. Hence it was that the ancients, with whom the church was representative, turned their faces to the sun in the east when they were in Divine worship. From them the custom is derived of placing temples with their aspect towards the east. (HH n. 116-119)

But when the Lord appears in heaven, which frequently occurs, He does not appear encompassed with the sun, but in an angelic form, distinguished from the angels by the Divine shining through and from His face. In truth Ho is not there in person, for in person the Lord is constantly surrounded with the sun; but He is in the presence [of the angels] by aspect. It is indeed common in heaven for them to appear as if present in the place to which the view [aspectus] is earnestly directed, or where it is terminated; although it may be very far from the place where they actually are. This presence is called presence to the internal sight, of which hereafter. The Lord has also been seen by me out of the sun, in an angelic form, a little beneath the sun on high; and also near, in a similar form, with a resplendent countenance once also as a flaming splendour in the midst of the angels. (ibid. n. 121)

Let every one take care that he does not think the sun of the spiritual world to be God Himself. God Himself is a Man. The first proceeding from His love and wisdom is a fiery spiritual [emanation] which appears to the angels as a sun. Therefore when the Lord manifests Himself to the angels in person He manifests Himself as Man; and this sometimes in the sun, sometimes out of the sun. (DLW n. 97)

The Heat and Light of Heaven

The heat of heaven like the light of heaven is everywhere various; different in the celestial kingdom from what it is in the spiritual kingdom, and also different in every society of each. It not only differs in degree but also in quality. It is more intense and pure in the Lord's celestial kingdom, because the angels there receive more of the Divine good; it is less intense and pure in the Lord's spiritual kingdom, because the angels there receive more of Divine truth. It differs in each society also, according to reception. . . . That love is heat from a spiritual origin is manifest from the increase of warmth according to love; for a man is inflamed and heated according to its degree and quality, and its ardor is manifested when it is assaulted. From this too it has become customary to speak of being inflamed, of growing warm, of burning, boiling, and being on fire, both when speaking of the affections which are of the love of good, and of the concupiscences which are of the love of evil.

The reason why the love proceeding from the Lord as a sun is felt in heaven as heat is, that from the Divine good which comes from the Lord the interiors of the angels are in love; whence the exteriors, which therefore grow warm, are in heat. It is from this cause that in heaven heat and love mutually so correspond to each other that every one there is in heat such as his love, agreeably to what was said just above.

Angels like men have an understanding and will. The light of heaven constitutes the life of their understanding,—because the light of heaven is Divine truth, and thence Divine wisdom; and the heat of heaven constitutes the life of their will,—because the heat of heaven is Divine good, and thence Divine love. The veriest life of the angels is from heat; and not from light, except in so far as there is heat within it. That life is from heat is manifest; for this being removed life perishes. It is the same with faith without love, or with truth without good; for truth, which is called the truth of faith, is light, and good which is of love, is heat. These things more plainly appear from the heat and light of the world, to which the heat and light of heaven correspond. From the heat of the world conjoined to the light all things that exist on the earth are vivified and flourish; they are conjoined in the seasons of spring and summer. But by the light separate from the heat nothing is vivified and flourishes, but all things become inactive and dead; they are not conjoined in the season of winter,—then heat is absent though the light continues. On account of this correspondence heaven is called paradise; since truth there is conjoined to good, or faith to love; just as the light is to heat in the season of spring on earth. (HH n. 134-136)

Such is the light in heaven that it exceeds the very noon-day light of this solar world, to a degree surpassing belief. But the angels receive no light from the world; because they are above or within the sphere of this light. But they receive light from the Lord, who is their sun. The light, even the noonday light, of this world, is as thick darkness to the angels. When it is given them to see this light it is as if they beheld mere darkness; which it has been given me to know by experience. It may be seen from this what a difference there is between the light of heaven and the light of the world. (AC n. 1521)

The Four Quarters in Heaven

In heaven as in the world there are four quarters, the east, the south, the west, and the north,—in both, determined' by their sun; in heaven by the sun of heaven, which is the Lord; in the world by the sun of the world. But yet there are great differences. The first is, that in the world it is called south where the sun is at its greatest altitude above the earth; north, where it is at the opposite point below the earth; east where the sun rises at the equinoxes; and west where it then sets. Thus, in the world all the quarters are determined from the south. But in heaven it is called the east where the Lord appears as a sun; the west is opposite; on the right in heaven is the south; and on the left there is the north; and this in every turning of their face and body. Thus, in heaven all the quarters are determined from the east. The reason why it is called east [oriens] where the Lord appears as a sun, is that all the origin of life is from Him as a sun; [It is scarcely possible to find complete expression for the sense of this passage in our language. To understand its full significance, and the doctrinal truth it involves respecting the Lord, it is necessary to know that the Latin word for east, oriens, is the present participle of the verb orior, "to rise," and literally signifies "the (sun) rising;" and that from the same verb was formed the Latin word for origin, origo, meaning literally the rising, i.e. coming forth, of things.] and also that in proportion as heat and light, or love and intelligence, are received from Him by the angels the Lord is said to arise with them. Hence also it is that the Lord is called the East, in the Word.

Another difference is that to the angels the east is always before the face, the west is behind them, the south on their right, and the north on their left. But as this can with difficulty be comprehended in the world,—for the reason that man turns his face to every quarter, it shall therefore be explained:—The whole heaven turns itself to the Lord as to its common centre; hence all the angels turn themselves thither. It is well known that on earth also there is a tendency of every thing to a common centre; but in heaven the direction differs from the direction in the world,—in that in heaven the anterior parts are turned to its common centre, but in the world the lower parts. This tendency in the world is what is called the centripetal force, and also gravitation. The interiors of the angels are in fact actually turned forwards; and as the interiors present themselves in the face, the face is therefore what determines the quarters.

But it is still more difficult to comprehend, in the world, that with the angels the east is before the face at every turning of their face and body; for the reason that to man every quarter comes before the face, according as he turns himself. This therefore shall also be explained:—The angels, in like manner with men, turn and direct their faces and their bodies whithersoever they will; and yet they always have the east before their eyes. But the turnings of the angels are not as the turnings of men; they are in fact from a different origin. They indeed appear alike; but yet they are not alike. The ruling love is the origin; all determinations are from this, with angels and with spirits. For, as was said just above, their interiors are actually turned to their common centre thus, in heaven, to the Lord as a sun. As their love is therefore continually before their interiors, and the face exists from the interiors,—for it is the external form of them,—it results that the love which predominates is always before the face. And consequently in the heavens the Lord as a sun is continually before the face; for it is He from whom they receive love. And as the Lord Himself is in His own love with the angels, therefore it is the Lord who causes them to look to Him which way soever they turn.

That there is such a turning to the Lord is among the wonders of heaven for many may be together there in the same place, and one turn the face and body in one way, and another in another, and yet all see the Lord before them, and each have the south on his right hand, the north on his left, and the west behind his back. It is also among the wonders of heaven that although the whole aspect of the angels is towards the east, yet they have an aspect also towards the three other quarters; but their aspect towards these is from their interior sight, which is that of the thought. Among the wonders is this too, that in heaven one is never permitted to stand behind another and look at the back of his head, and if this is done the influx of good and truth which comes from the Lord is disturbed. (HH n. 141-144)

All that is here said of the angels and of their turning to the Lord as a sun, is also to be understood of man, as to his spirit; for as to his mind man is a spirit, and if he is in love and wisdom he is an angel. After death therefore, when he puts off his externals which he had derived from the natural world, he actually becomes a spirit or an angel. And as the angels constantly turn their faces eastward towards the sun, and thus towards the Lord, it is said also of the man who is in love and wisdom from the Lord, that he sees God, that he looks to God, and that he has God before his eyes; by which is meant, that he lives as an angel. Such things are said in the world both because they actually exist in heaven, and because they actually exist in man's spirit. Who does not in prayer look before him up to God, to whatever quarter his face is turned?

The reason why the angels constantly turn their faces towards the Lord as a sun is, that they are in the Lord and the Lord in them; and the Lord interiorly leads their affections and thoughts, and constantly turns them to Himself. For this reason they cannot otherwise than look towards the east, where the Lord as a sun appears. It is plain from this that the angels do not turn themselves to the Lord, but that the Lord turns them to himself. For when the angels think interiorly of the Lord, they do not think of Him otherwise than within themselves. Interior thought does not itself cause distance; but the exterior thought does this, which acts as one with the sight of the eyes. The reason is that the exterior and not the interior thought is in space; and where as in the spiritual world it is not in space, it is yet in the appearance of space. (DLW n. 129, 130)

All in the heavens have distinct abodes according to the quarters. Towards the east and the west dwell those who are in the good of love; towards the east those who are in a clear perception of it, towards the west those who are in an obscure perception of it. Towards the south and the north dwell those who are in wisdom from that good; towards the south those who are in the clear light of wisdom, towards the north those who are in an obscure light of wisdom.

In like manner do the angels dwell among themselves in each society of heaven; towards the east dwell those who are in a greater degree of love and charity, towards the west those who are in a less degree; towards the south those who are in a greater light of wisdom and intelligence, towards the north those who are in a less.

Hence it is that the quarters in the heavens signify such things as pertain to those who dwell there; for the east signifies love and its good in clear perception; the west, the same in obscure perception; the south, wisdom and intelligence in clear light; and the north the same in obscure light. And because such things are signified by these quarters, therefore similar things are signified by them in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word; for the internal or spiritual sense of the word is entirely in accordance with the things that exist in heaven. (HH n. 148-150)

Changes of State in Heaven

The angels are not constantly in the same state as to love, nor therefore in the same state as to wisdom; for all their wisdom is from love, and according to love. They are sometimes in a state of intense love, and sometimes in a state of love not intense. It decreases by degrees from its greatest to its least. When they are in their greatest degree of love they are in the light and heat of their life, or in their clearness and delight; but when they are in their least degree they are in shade and cold, or in their obscurity and undelight. From the last state they return again to the first; and so on. These changes follow one after the other, but with a diversity. The states succeed each other as the variations of the state of light and shade, of heat and cold; or as the morning, midday, evening, and night, every day in the world, with perpetual variety throughout the year. They also correspond; the morning to the state of their love in clearness, the midday to the state of their wisdom in clearness, the evening to the state of their wisdom in obscurity, and the night to a state of no love and wisdom. But it should be known that there is no correspondence of night with states of life of those who are in heaven; but there is a correspondence of the twilight that comes before the morning. The correspondence of night is with those who are in hell. (HH n. 155)

I have been informed from heaven why there are changes of state there. The angels have told me that there are several reasons. The first is, that the delight of life and of heaven, which they derive from the love and wisdom that proceed from the Lord, would by degrees lose its value if they were in it continually; as is the case with those who are in conditions of delight and pleasantness without variety. Another reason is, that they as well as men have a proprium, and that this consists in loving themselves; and that all who are in heaven are withheld from their proprium, and in so far as they are withheld from it by the Lord are in love and wisdom; but in so far as they are not withheld they are in the love of self; and as every one loves his proprium, and is attracted by it, they have changes of state, or successive alternations. A third reason is, that they are thus perfected, since they are thus accustomed to be kept in the love of the Lord, and to be withheld from the love of self; and also that by alternations of delight and undelight the perception and sensation of good becomes more exquisite. They added, that the Lord does not produce their changes of state, for the Lord as a sun is always flowing in with heat and light, that is with love and wisdom; but that they themselves are the cause, for that they love their proprium, which is continually drawing them away. This was illustrated by comparison with the sun of the world; in that the cause of the changes of state of heat and cold, and of light and shade, every year and every day, is not in the sun, for it stands still, but the cause is in the earth. (ibid. n. 158)

Time in Heaven

The angels do not know what time is,—although all things successively advance with them just as in the world, even so completely that there is no difference,—because in heaven there are not years and days, but changes of state; and where there are years and days, there are times, and where there are changes of state, there are states. The reason why there are times in the world is, that there to appearance the sun advances successively from one degree to another, and makes the times that are called seasons of the year; and also apparently revolves around the earth, and causes the periods that are called times of the day,— and each by stated alternations. It is otherwise with the sun of heaven. This does not by successive progressions and circumvolutions cause years and days, but to appearance changes of state; and these not by stated alternations, as was shown in the preceding article. Hence it is that the angels can have no conception of time, but of state in its stead.

Since the angels have no idea derived from time, like men in the world, they have therefore no idea concerning time, nor concerning the things that relate to time. The things proper to time, such as the year, month, week, day, hour, to-day, to-morrow, yesterday,—they do not even know what they are. When the angels hear of them from man (for angels are always adjoined to man by the Lord), instead of these they perceive states, and such things as pertain to state; thus the natural idea of man with the angels is turned into a spiritual idea. Hence it is that times signify states in the Word, and that the things proper to time, such as are mentioned above, signify the spiritual things corresponding to them.

It is the same with all things that exist from time; as with the four seasons of the year, called spring, summer, autumn and winter; the four times of the day, called morning, noon, evening, and night; and with the four ages of man, called infancy, youth, manhood, and old age; and with all other things that either exist from time, or follow in succession according to time. In thinking of these a man thinks from time, and an angel from state. Therefore whatever is from time in these things with man, is changed into an idea respecting state with an angel; spring and morning are changed into an idea of the state of love and wisdom, as they are in the first state with the angels; summer and noon are changed into an idea of love and wisdom as they are in the second state; autumn and evening as they are in the third state; night and winter into an idea of such a state as exists in hell. Hence it is that similar things are signified by these times in the Word. It may be seen from this how the natural things that are in the thought of man become spiritual with the angels who are with man. (HH n. 163-166)

Space and Distance in Heaven

Although all things in heaven appear in place, and in space, just as in the world, yet the angels have no notion or idea of place and space. As this cannot but seem a paradox, I wish to present the subject in a clear light; for it is of great moment.

All progressions in the spiritual world are made by changes of the state of the interiors; so that the progressions are nothing else than changes of state. Thus too have I been brought by the Lord into the heavens, and also to earths in the universe; and this, as to the spirit, while the body remained in the same place. Thus do all the angels move forward. To them therefore there are no distances; and if there are not distances neither are there spaces, but instead of them states, and their changes.

As progressions are thus made, it is evident that approaches are similitudes as to the state of the interiors, and that withdrawals are dissimilitudes. Hence it is that they are near to each other who are in a similar state, and they at a distance who are in a dissimilar state; and that spaces in heaven are nothing but the external states corresponding to internal. It is from no other cause that the heavens are distinct from each other; and the societies also of each heaven; and every one in a society. Hence likewise it is that the hells are completely separated from the heavens; because they are in a contrary state.

It is also from this cause that in the spiritual world one is presented in person to another if only he intensely desires his presence; for thus he sees him in thought, and puts himself in his state; and conversely, that one is removed from another in proportion as he is averse to him. And as all aversion is from contrariety of affections and disagreement of thoughts, it therefore comes to pass that several who are in one place there appear so long as they agree, but disappear as soon as they disagree.

When also any one goes from one place to another, whether in his own city, or in courts, or in gardens, or to others out of his own society, he arrives sooner when he desires, and later when he does not desire; the very way, although it is the same, is lengthened and shortened according to the desire. This I have often seen and wondered at. From these facts again it is evident that distances, and therefore spaces, with the angels, are exactly in accordance with the states of their interiors; and because it is so, that the notion and idea of space cannot enter into their thought, although there are spaces with them equally as in the world. (HH 191-195)

Representatives and Appearances in Heaven

The things that spring forth in the heavens are not produced in the same manner as those that spring forth on earth. In the heavens all things come forth from the Lord, according to correspondence with the interiors of the angels. For the angels have both interiors and exteriors; the things that are in their interiors all have relation to love and faith, thus to the will and the understanding,—for the will and understanding are their receptacles; and the exteriors correspond to the interiors. This may be illustrated by what was said above concerning the heat and light of heaven. It is the same with all other things that appear to the senses of the angels. (HH n. 173)

Because all things that correspond to the interiors also represent them, they are called representatives. And because they are varied according to the state of the interiors with the angels, they are called appearances; and yet the things which appear before the eyes of angels in the heavens, and are perceived by their senses, appear and are perceived as much to the life as the things that are on the earth do to man,—nay, much more clearly, distinctly, and perceptibly. The appearances from this origin in the heavens because they really exist, are called real appearances. There are also appearances that are not real, which are those things that do indeed appear but do not correspond to the interiors. But of these hereafter.

In illustration of the nature of the things that appear to the angels according to correspondences, I will here adduce a single example:—To those who are in intelligence gardens and paradises appear, full of trees and flowers of every kind. The trees therein are set in most beautiful order, joined together by interlacing branches, forming fretted avenues and walks among them round about, all of such beauty that they cannot be described. They who are in intelligence walk also there, and gather flowers, and weave garlands, with which they adorn little children. There are species of trees and flowers there too, which are never seen and cannot exist in the world. There are also fruits on the trees, according to the good of love in which the intelligent are They see such things because a garden and paradise, and fruit trees and flowers, correspond to intelligence and wisdom. That such things exist in the heavens is known indeed on earth, but only to those who are in good, and who have not extinguished the light of heaven within them, by natural light and its fallacies; for they think and say, when speaking of heaven, that such things exist there "as ear hath not heard, nor eye seen." (ibid. n. 175, 176)

Besides these paradisiacal scenes there are also cities presented to view, with magnificent palaces, contiguous to each other, of splendid colours, exceeding all architectural art. Nor is this surprising. Similar things were seen also by the prophets when their interior sight was opened; and so manifestly, indeed, that nothing could be more manifest in the world. For example, the New Jerusalem seen by John, which is described by him in these words:—"He carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and skewed me that great city the Holy Jerusalem, .. . having a wall great and high, having twelve gates. . . . The building of the wall was of jasper; and the city was pure gold, like unto golden glass. The foundations of the wall were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth„ emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprasus; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst" (Rev. xxi. 10, 12, 18, 19, 20).

Besides cities and palaces it has been given me also to look at their decorations; such as those of the steps and gates,—and these were moving as if with life, and varying as with ever new beauty and symmetry. And I was informed that there can thus be successive variations perpetually, even though it were to eternity, with constantly new harmony; the very succession also forming a harmony. And it was said that these were some of the least of their wonders. (AC n. 1626, 1627)

Representatives of things spiritual and celestial sometimes appear in a long series, continued for an hour or two, in such order one after another as is wonderful. There are societies among whom these take place, and it was granted me to be with them for several months; but the representations are such that if I were to recount and describe only one in its order it would fill several pages. They are extremely delightful, inasmuch as something new and unexpected is continually following, until that which is represented is fully completed; and when all the representatives are completed, it is permitted to contemplate them in one view, and at the same time it is given to perceive what each particular thing signifies. Good spirits are thus also introduced into spiritual and celestial ideas. (AC n. 3214)

The Garments of Angels

Like other things, the garments with which angels are clothed correspond; and because they correspond they also really exist. Their garments correspond to their intelligence; and therefore all in the heavens appear clothed according to their intelligence; and as one excels another in intelligence, one therefore has more excellent garments than another. The most intelligent have shining garments as of flame, some resplendent as of light; the less intelligent have garments of shining white, and of white without lustre; and those still less intelligent have garments of diverse colors. But the angels of the inmost heaven are naked. (HH n. 178)

The Habitations and Mansions of the Angels

Since there are societies in heaven and the angels live as men, they also have habitations, and these also are various according to every one's state of life; magnificent for those who are in a higher state of dignity, and less magnificent for those who are in a lower. I have sometimes talked with the angels about the habitations in heaven, and said that scarcely any one at this day would believe that they have habitations and mansions; some because they do not see them; some because they do not know that angels are men; some because they believe that the angelic heaven is the heaven that is seen with their eyes round about them,—and because this appears empty, and they suppose that angels are ethereal forms, they conclude that they live in the ether. Moreover, they do not comprehend that there are such things in the spiritual world as are in the natural world, because they know nothing of what is spiritual.

But it is better to adduce the evidences of experience. As often as I have talked with the angels face to face, I have been with them in their habitations. They are precisely like the habitations on earth called houses, except that they are more beautiful; there are rooms, closets, and bed-chambers in them in great number; and there are courts; and round about them are gardens, shrubberies, and fields. Where they are associated together the habitations are contiguous, one close to another, disposed in the form of a city, with streets, passages, and public squares, quite after the manner of cities on our earth. It has been given me to pass through them, and look about me on every side, and some times to enter the houses. This has been done in full wakefulness, while my interior sight was opened.

I have seen palaces in heaven which were so magnificent that they cannot be described. Above they glistened as if they were of pure gold; and below as if of precious stones. Some palaces were more splendid than others. It was the same within; the apartments were ornamented with such decorations as neither language nor science can adequately describe. On the side looking to the south there were paradises, wherein all things were equally resplendent. In some places the leaves were as of silver, and the fruits as of gold, and the flowers in their beds presented by their colors the appearance of rainbows. On the boundaries again palaces were seen, in which the view terminated. Such is the architecture of heaven that you would declare the art is there in its own skill; and no wonder, for this art itself is from heaven. The angels said that such things, and innumerable others which are still more perfect, are presented before their eyes by the Lord; but yet that they delight their minds more than their eyes, because they see the correspondences in every least thing, and through correspondences things Divine.

Respecting correspondences, I have been informed too that not only their palaces and houses, but also each and all things that are within and without them correspond to things interior that are within them from the Lord; that the house itself in general corresponds to their good, and the several things that are within the houses to the various particulars of which their good consists; and the things outside of the houses correspond to the truths which are from their good, and likewise to perceptions and knowledges; and that because they correspond to the goods and truths within them from the Lord, they correspond to their love, and therefore to their wisdom and intelligence,—for love is of good, wisdom is of good and at the same time of truth, and intelligence is of truth from good; and that such are the things which the angels perceive when they look at these objects, and that for this reason they delight and affect their minds more than their eyes. (HH n. 183, 186)

Governments in Heaven

Since heaven is distinguished into societies, and the larger societies consist of some hundreds of thousands of angels, and though all within a society are in similar good, yet they are not in similar wisdom, it of necessity follows that there are governments also in heaven. For order must be observed, and all things pertaining to order must be watched over. But the governments in the heavens are various; of one kind in the societies that constitute the Lord's celestial kingdom, and of another kind in the societies that constitute the Lord's spiritual kingdom. They also differ according to the ministries performed by each society. Yet there is no government in the heavens but the government of mutual love; and government of mutual love is heavenly government.

The government in the Lord's celestial kingdom is called Justice, because all who are there are in the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, and what is from that good is called just. The government there is of the Lord alone; He leads them and teaches them in the affairs of life. The truths which are called the truths of judgment are inscribed upon their hearts. Every one knows, perceives, and sees them; matters of judgment therefore never come into dispute there, but matters of justice, which are of life. The less wise interrogate the more wise upon these subjects, and they the Lord, and receive answers. Their heaven, or their inmost joy, is to live justly from the Lord.

The government in the Lord's spiritual kingdom is called Judgment; because there they are in spiritual good, which is the good of charity towards the neighbor, and this good is the essence of truth,—and truth is of judgment, and good is of justice. They also are led by the Lord, but mediately; they therefore have governors, few or more, according to the need of the society in which they are: they have laws too, according to which they live together. The governors administer all things according to the laws. As they are wise, they understand them; • and in doubtful cases they are enlightened by the Lord. (HH n. 213-215)

There are various forms of government in the Lord's spiritual kingdom, differing in different societies; the variety is according to the ministries which the societies perform. Their ministries are in accordance with the functions of all the parts in man to which they correspond; and that these functions are various is well known; for the heart has one function, the lungs another, the liver another, the pancreas and spleen another, and each organ of sense also another. As the administrations of these functions in the body are various, so the administrations of the societies in the Greatest Man, which is heaven, are various; for there are societies that correspond to them. But all the forms of government agree in this; that they regard the public good as the end, and in that the good of every individual.

From these statements it may appear what is the character of the governors; namely, that they are those who excel others in love and wisdom, thus who from love will do good to all, and from wisdom know how to provide that it shall be done. They who are of such a character do not rule and command, but minister and serve; for to do good to others from the love of good is to serve, and to cause it to be done is to minister. Nor do they make themselves greater than others, but less; for they have the good of society and of their neighbor in the first place, but their own in the last place, and what is in the first place is the greater, and what is in the last is the less. And yet they have honor and glory. They dwell in the midst of the society, more exalted than others, and also in magnificent palaces; and they accept this glory and honor, yet not for themselves, but for the sake of obedience; for all there know that they have this honor and glory from the Lord, and that for this reason they ought to be obeyed. These are the things that are meant by the Lord's words to his disciples: "Whosoever would be great among you, let him be your minister.; and whosoever would be chief among you let him be your servant; even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto but to minister" (Matt. xx. 27, 28). "He that is the greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he that is leader, as he that doth minister" (Luke xxii. 26).

There is also a similar government, in the least form, in every household. There is a master, and there are servants; the master loves the servants, and the servants love the master; so that they serve each other, from love. The master teaches them how they ought to live, and tells what is to be done; the servants obey, and perform their duties. To perform use is the delight of life with all. It is therefore evident that the kingdom of the Lord is a kingdom of uses. (ibid. n. 217-219)

Divine Worship in Heaven

Divine worship in the heavens as to its externals is not unlike Divine worship on earth, but as to internals it is different. Just as on earth, there are doctrines in the heavens; there are preachings; and there are temples. The doctrines agree as to essentials; but are of more interior wisdom in the higher than in the lower heavens. The preachings are according to the doctrines. And as there are houses and palaces, so also there are temples, in which the preaching is performed. The reason why there are such things in the heavens also is, that the angels are being continually perfected in wisdom and in love. For they, like men, have an understanding and a will; and the understanding is of such a nature that it can be perfected continually, and likewise the will; the understanding by truths, which are matters of intelligence, and the will by goods, which are of love.

But Divine worship itself in the heavens does not consist in frequenting temples, and in listening to preaching, but in a life of love, charity, and faith, according to the doctrines. The preachings in the temples serve only as means of instruction in matters relating to life.

That I might know what their meetings are in the temples, it has been given me several times to go in and hear the preaching. The preacher stands in a pulpit on the east. Those who more than others are in the light of wisdom sit before his face; at the right and left of them sit those who are in less light. They sit in the form of a circle, so that all are in view of the preacher; no one is at the sides on either hand, so as to be out of his sight. At the door, which is on the east side of the temple, and at the left of the pulpit, stand those who are being initiated. No one is permitted to stand behind the pulpit; if any one is there the preacher is confused. It is the same if any one in the congregation dissent; it therefore becomes him to turn away his face. The preachings are fraught with such wisdom that no preachings in the world can be compared with them; for in the heavens they are in interior light. The temples in the spiritual kingdom appear as if of stone; and in the celestial kingdom as if of wood; for the reason that stone corresponds to truth, in which they are who are in the spiritual kingdom, and wood corresponds to good, in which they are who are in the celestial kingdom. In this kingdom the sacred edifices are not called temples, but houses of God. In the celestial kingdom the sacred edifices are without magnificence; but in the spiritual kingdom they are more or less magnificent. (HH. n. 221-223)

The preachers are all from the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and none from the celestial kingdom. They are from the spiritual kingdom, because there they are in truths from good, and all preaching is from truths; that no preacher is from the celestial kingdom, is because there they are in the good of love, and from this good they see and perceive truths but do not talk about them. Notwithstanding that the angels who are in the celestial kingdom perceive and see truths, yet there are preachings there, because by preaching they are enlightened in the truths that they know, and are perfected by many that they did not know before. And they acknowledge and thus perceive them as soon as they hear them. The truths which they perceive they also love, and by living according to them they make them a part of their life; to live according to truths, they say, is to love the Lord.

The preachers are all appointed by the Lord, and thence are in the gift of preaching. None but these are permitted to teach in the temples. They are called preachers, and not priests, because the priesthood of heaven is the celestial kingdom; for the priesthood signifies the good of love to the Lord, in which they are who are in that kingdom. But the royalty of heaven is the spiritual kingdom; for royalty signifies truth from good, in which they are who are in that kingdom.

The doctrines according to which they preach all regard life as the end, and none of them faith without life. The doctrine of the inmost heaven is more full of wisdom than the doctrine of the intermediate heaven; and this is more full of intelligence than the doctrine of the ultimate heaven. For the doctrines are adapted to the perception of the angels in each heaven. The essential of all the doctrines is acknowledgment of the Lord's Divine Humanity. (ibid. n. 225-227)

The Power of Angels

They who know nothing of the spiritual world, and of its influx into the natural world, cannot comprehend that the angels have power. They think angels cannot have power because they are spiritual, and so pure and attenuate that they cannot even be seen with the eyes. But they who look more interiorly into the causes of things, think differently. They know that all the power that man has is from his understanding and will; for without them he cannot move a particle of his body. The understanding and will are his spiritual man. This actuates the body and its members at its pleasure; for what it thinks the mouth and tongue speak, and what it wills the body does. It also gives its powers at pleasure. The will and understanding of man are governed by the Lord, through angels and spirits; and the will and understanding being thus governed, so also are all things of the body, for they are from them; and if you will believe it, a man cannot even move a step without the influx of heaven. That it is so has been shown me by much experience. It has been given the angels to move my steps, my actions, my tongue, and speech, as they pleased, and this by influx into my will and thought; and I found by experience that of myself I could do nothing. They said afterwards, that even man is so governed; and that he may know this from the doctrine of the church and from the Word; for he prays that God will send His angels, that they may lead him, direct his steps, teach him, and inspire what he should think and what he should say; and more to this effect; and yet when by himself he thinks without doctrine he says and believes otherwise. These things are mentioned that it may be known what power the angels have over man.

And in the spiritual world the power of the angels is so great, that if I were to proclaim respecting it all that I have seen, it would exceed belief. If anything resists there, which ought to be removed because it is contrary to Divine order, they cast it down and overturn it by a mere effort of the will and a look. I have thus seen mountains which were occupied by the evil cast down and overthrown, and sometimes shaken from one end to the other, as they are in an earthquake. Rocks I have also seen cleft asunder in the midst down to the deep, and the evil who were upon them swallowed up. And I have seen hundreds of thousands of evil spirits dispersed and cast into hell by them. Numbers avail nothing against them, nor arts, nor cunning and confederacies; for they see them all, and disperse them in a moment. Such power have they in the spiritual world. That the angels have similar power in the natural world also, when it is granted, is evident from the Word. For example, in that they gave whole armies to destruction; that an angel wrought a pestilence, of which seventy thousand men died. Of this angel we read:—"The angel stretched out his hand against Jerusalem, to destroy it; but Jehovah repenting the evil, said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough, stay now thy hand. . . . And David . . saw the angel that smote the people" (2 Sam. xxiv. 15-17); and elsewhere. Because they have such power they are called powers. As in David:—"Bless Jehovah, ye His angels, most powerful in strength" (Ps. ciii. 20).

But it should be known that the angels have no power at all from themselves, but that all the power they possess is from the Lord; and that they are powers in so far as they acknowledge this. Whoever among them believes that he has power from himself instantly becomes so weak that he cannot resist even one evil spirit; which is a reason why the angels attribute nothing at all of merit to themselves, and are averse to all praise and glory for anything done, and ascribe it to the Lord.

It is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord to which all power pertains in the heavens. . . . So far therefore as an angel is truth from the Divine, and good from the Divine, he is a power, because so far the Lord is in him. And as no one is in precisely similar, or in the same good and truth as another (for in heaven as in the world, there is perpetual variety), therefore one angel is not in similar power to another. They are in the greatest power who constitute the arms of the Greatest Man or heaven; because they who are there are in truths more than others, and into their truths good flows from the universal heaven. Moreover the power of the whole man transfers itself into the arms, and through these the whole body exercises its powers. Hence it is, that power is signified by the arms and the hands in the Word. (HH n. 228-231)

The Speech of Angels

Angels converse with each other just as men do in the world; and also on various subjects, such as domestic affairs, matters relating to their civil condition, the affairs of moral life, and the affairs of spiritual life. Nor is there any difference except that they converse more intelligently than men, because from more interior thought. It has been granted me often to be in company with them, and to talk with them as friend with friend,—and sometimes as a stranger with a stranger; and being then in a similar state with them, I knew not but that I was conversing with men on earth.

Angelic speech like human speech is distinguished into words. In like manner it is also uttered with a sound, and is heard as sound. For they equally with men have a mouth, a tongue, and ears; and they have also an atmosphere, in which the sound of their speech is articulated; but it is a spiritual atmosphere, accommodated to the angels, who are spiritual. The angels also breathe in their atmosphere, and pronounce their words by means of the breath, as men do in theirs.

In the universal heaven they have all one language; and they all understand each other, from whatever society they are, whether near or distant. The language there is not learned, but is inherent with every one; for it flows from their very affection and thought. The sound of speech corresponds to their affection; and the articulations of sound, which are words, correspond to the ideas of thought, which are from affection; and as the language corresponds to these it also is spiritual, for it is affection sounding and thought speaking. Whoever directs his attention to the subject may know that every thought is from an affection, which is of love; and that the ideas of thought are the various forms into which the general affection is distributed. For there is no thought or idea without an affection; from thence is their soul and life. Hence it is that the angels know the character of another from his speech alone; from the sound they know what his affection is, and from the articulations of the sound, or words, what his mind is. The wiser angels, from a single series of words know the character of the ruling affection, for to this they principally attend. That every one has various affections, is known; one affection when he is in a state of joy, another in grief, another when in clemency and mercy, another in sincerity and truth, another in love and charity; another when in zeal or in anger, another when in simulation and deceit, another when in quest of honour and glory, and so on. But the ruling affection or love is in them all; wherefore the wiser angels, because they perceive this, know all the state of another from his speech. It has been given me to know that it is so by much experience. I have heard angels laying open the life of another merely from listening to his speech. They also told me that they know all things of another's life from a few ideas of his thought; because from thence they know his ruling love, in which they are all contained in their order; and that man's book of life is nothing else.

Angelic language has nothing in common with human languages, save with some words that sound from a certain affection; and then not with the words themselves, but with the sound. . . . I have been told that the first language of men on our earth was in agreement with that of the angels, because they received it from heaven; and that the Hebrew language agrees with it in some particulars. Since the speech of angels corresponds to their affection, which is an affection of love, and the love of heaven is love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour, it is evident how elegant and delightful must be their discourse. It indeed affects not the ears only, but also the interiors of the mind of those who hear. There was a certain hard-hearted spirit, with whom an angel conversed, He was at length so affected by his speech that he shed tears, saying that he could not help it, for it was love speaking, and that he had never wept before. (HH n. 234-238)

The same kind of speech that is in the spiritual world is inherent in every man, but in his interior intellectual part. But as with man this does not fall into words analogous to affection, as with the angels, man is not aware that he is in it. Yet it is from this that when a man comes into the other life he speaks the same language as the spirits and angels there, and knows how thus to speak without instruction. (ibid. n. 243)

The speech of the celestial angels is distinct from that of the spiritual angels, and is still more ineffable and inexpressible. The things into which their thoughts are insinuated are the celestial things and goods of ends; and they are therefore in the enjoyment of happiness itself. And what is remarkable, their speech is far more copious; for they are in the very fountains and origins of the life of thought and speech. (AC n. 1647)

The angels in the Lord's celestial kingdom speak in a similar manner as the angels in the Lord's spiritual kingdom; but the celestial angels speak from more interior thought than the spiritual angels. And as the celestial angels are in the good of love to the Lord they speak from wisdom; but the spiritual angels being in the good of charity to the neighbour, which in its essence is truth, speak from intelligence; for wisdom is from good, and intelligence is from truth. Hence the speech of the celestial angels is like a gentle stream, soft, and as it were continuous; but the speech of the spiritual angels is a little vibratory and discrete. (HH n. 241. See also p. 604)

Writings in Heaven

As the angels have a language, and their language is a language of words, therefore they have writings also, and express the sentiments of their minds by writings as well as by speech. Sometimes papers have been sent me covered with writings, precisely like papers written by hand, and also like printed papers in the world. I could read them too in the same manner; but I was not permitted to take from them more than an idea or two; the reason was that it is not according to Divine order to be instructed by writings from heaven, but by the Word, because by this alone is there communication and conjunction of heaven with the world, and so of the Lord with man. Papers written in heaven also appeared to the prophets; as may be seen in. Ezekiel:—"When I looked, behold a hand put forth by a spirit unto me, and a roll of a book was therein, which he unfolded in my sight; it was written on the front and on the back" (ii. 9, 10). And in John: "I saw at the right hand of Him who sat on the throne, a book written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals" (Apoc. v. 1). (HH n. 258)

A little paper was also once sent to me from heaven, on which a few words only were written, in Hebrew letters; and it was said that every letter involved arcana of wisdom, and that they were contained in the inflections and curvatures of the letters, and thence also in the sounds. By this it was made clear to me what is signified by the words of the Lord: "Verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, one iota or one little horn [i.e. of a letter] shall not pass from the law" (Matt. v. 18). It is known indeed in the Church that as to every tittle of it the Word is Divine; but where in every tittle the Divine is conceded is not known as yet. It shall therefore be declared:—The writing in the inmost heaven consists of various inflected and circumflected forms; and the inflexions and circumflexions are according to the form of heaven. By these the angels express the arcana of their wisdom, and many things too which they cannot utter by words. And what is wonderful, the angels know this writing without acquired skill, and without a master; like their speech itself [See p. 659] it is inherent in them. This writing therefore is heavenly writing. It is inherent, because all extension of thoughts and affections, and therefore all communication of the intelligence and wisdom of the angels, proceed according to the form of heaven. It comes from this that their writing flows into that form. I have been told that the most ancient people on this earth also had such writing, before letters were invented; and that it was translated into the letters of the Hebrew language, which letters in ancient times were all inflected, and none of them were terminated, as some of them are at this day, as lines. Hence it is that in the Word there are things Divine, and arcana of heaven, even in the points, apexes, and little horns of its letters.

This writing which is done with characters of a heavenly form is in use in the inmost heaven, where they excel all others in wisdom. Affections are expressed by means of them, from which thoughts flow and follow in order according to the subject treated of. Hence these writings involve arcana which cannot be exhausted by thought. These writings also it has been granted me to see. But in the lower heavens there are not such writings. The writings in these heavens are similar to writings in the world; in similar letters, but yet not intelligible to man, because they are in angelic language, and angelic language is such that it has nothing in common with human languages; for by the vowels they express affections, by the consonants ideas of thought from affections, and by the words formed of them their sense of the subject. This writing also involves more in a few words than a man can write down in several pages. These writings too have been seen by me. They have the Word thus written in the lower heavens; and by heavenly forms in the inmost heaven.

It is worthy of remark that the writings in the heavens flow naturally from their thoughts themselves with so little exertion that it is as if thought cast itself forth. Nor does the hand hesitate in the choice of any word; for the words that they write as well as those which they speak correspond to the ideas of their thought, and all correspondence is natural and spontaneous. There are also writings without the aid of the hand in the heavens; from the mere correspondence of the thoughts; but these are not permanent. (ibid. n. 260-262)

The Wisdom of the Angels

The nature of the wisdom of the angels of heaven can with difficulty be comprehended; because it so far transcends human wisdom that they cannot be compared, and that which is transcendent appears as if it were nothing. Some of the things also by which it must be described are unknown; and until these become known they are as shadows in the understanding, and so actually conceal the subject as it is in itself. But yet they are such things as can be known, and can be comprehended when they are known, if only the mind is delighted with them. For delight carries light with it, because it is from love; and upon those who love such things as are of Divine and heavenly wisdom light shines from heaven, and they receive illustration.

The nature of the wisdom of angels may be inferred from the fact that they are in the light of heaven, and the light of heaven in its essence is Divine truth or Divine wisdom; and this light enlightens at the same time their internal sight, which is that of the mind, and their external sight, which is that of the eyes. The angels are also in heavenly heat, which in its essence is Divine good, or Divine love, from which they have the affection and desire to be wise. To such a degree are the angels in wisdom that they may be called wisdoms, as may be concluded from the fact that all their thoughts and affections flow in accordance with the heavenly form, which is the form of Divine wisdom; and that their interiors which receive wisdom are fashioned to that form. That the angels have supereminent wisdom, may also appear from the fact that their speech is the speech of wisdom; for it flows immediately and spontaneously from the thought, and this from their affection, so that their speech is thought and affection in external form. Hence there is nothing that withdraws them from the Divine influx, and nothing external intrudes from other thoughts, as with man in his speech. To such wisdom of the angels this also conspires, that all things which they see with their eyes and perceive by the senses agree with their wisdom, since they are correspondences; and the objects are therefore forms representative of such things as are of wisdom. Moreover the thoughts of the angels are not, like human thoughts, bounded and contracted by ideas derived from space and time; for spaces and times are proper to nature, and things that belong to nature draw the mind away from spiritual things, and deprive the intellectual sight of extension. Nor are the thoughts of angels drawn down to earthly and material things; nor interrupted by any cares about the necessaries of life. Thus they are not withdrawn by these things from the delights of wisdom, as the thoughts of men are in the world. For all things come to them without recompense from the Lord they are clothed without recompense, they are nourished without recompense, they have habitations without recompense. And moreover they are gifted with delights and pleasures according to their reception of wisdom from the Lord. These things are mentioned, that it may be known whence the angels have so great wisdom. (HH n. 265, 266)

How great is the wisdom of the angels may appear from the fact that in the heavens there is a communication of all things; the intelligence and wisdom of one is communicated to another; heaven is a communion of all goods. The reason is, that heavenly love is of such a nature that it desires that what is its own may be another's. No one in heaven therefore perceives his own good in himself as good, unless it be also in another; and hence is the happiness of heaven. The angels derive this quality from the Lord, whose Divine love is of such a nature.

Their wisdom is to human wisdom as a myriad to one; comparatively, as the moving forces of the whole body, which are innumerable, to an action from them,—which to human sense appears as one; or as the thousand minutia; of an object seen with a perfect microscope to the one indistinct thing that appears to the naked eye. I will also illustrate the subject by example:—An angel from his wisdom described regeneration, and brought forth mysteries concerning it, in their order, up to hundreds, and filled each mystery with ideas in which there were yet more inferior mysteries. And this he did from the beginning to the end; for he explained how the spiritual man is conceived anew, is carried as it were in the womb, is born, grows up, and is successively perfected. He said, that he could increase the number of mysteries to thousands; and that those which he explained only related to the regeneration of the external man, and that there were innumerably more relating to the regeneration of the internal From these and other similar things that have been heard from the angels it was made manifest to me how great is their wisdom; and how great relatively is the ignorance of man, who scarcely knows what regeneration is, and knows no movement of the progress while he is being regenerated.

The wisdom of the angels of the third or inmost heaven is incomprehensible even to those who are in the ultimate heaven. The reason is, that the interiors of the angels of the third heaven are opened to the third degree, and the interiors of the angels of the first heaven only to the first degree; and all wisdom increases towards the interiors, and according to the opening of them.... Divine truths appear as inscribed upon these angels, or as if inherent and innate. As soon therefore as they hear genuine Divine truths they immediately acknowledge and perceive them, and afterwards inwardly see them as it were within themselves. Such being the character of the angels of that heaven, they never reason about Divine truths; still less do they dispute about any truth, as to whether it is so or not so. Nor do they know what it is to believe, or have faith; for they say, Why have faith? For I perceive and see that it is so. They illustrate the matter by comparisons; such as, that it would be as when one with a companion sees a house and the various things within and around it, and should say to his companion that he ought to believe that they exist, and that they are such as he sees them; or as if one should see a garden, and trees and fruits therein, and should say to his companion that he ought to have faith that it is a garden, and that there are trees and fruits, when yet he sees them plainly with his eyes. Hence it is that these angels never mention faith, and have no idea of it nor therefore do they reason about Divine truths, still less dispute about any truth, as to whether it be so or not so. But the angels of the first or ultimate heaven have not Divine truths inscribed thus on their interiors, because with them only the first degree of life is open. They therefore reason about truths; and those who reason scarcely see anything beyond a phase of the matter about which they reason; or go beyond the subject, except merely to confirm it by certain considerations; and when they have confirmed it they 'say that it must be a matter of faith, and ought to be believed. I have conversed with angels on these subjects; who said that the difference between the wisdom of the angels of the third heaven, and the wisdom of the angels of the first heaven, is as between what is clear and what is obscure. Yet the angels of the inmost heaven are continually being perfected in wisdom; but in a different manner from the angels of the ultimate heaven. The angels of the inmost heaven do not lay up Divine truths in the memory, thus they do not make them a matter of knowledge, but as soon as they hear they perceive them, and apply them to life. Hence it is that Divine truths remain with them, as if inscribed on them; for what is applied to the life thus internally abides. But it is different with the angels of the ultimate heaven. These first lay up Divine truths in the memory, and store them in the form of knowledge; and from thence bring them forth and perfect their understanding by them, and without interior perception whether they are truths, will them, and commit them to life; hence they are relatively in obscurity. It is worthy of mention that the angels of the third heaven are perfected in wisdom by hearing, but not by sight. The truths that they hear from preaching do not enter into their memory, but immediately into their perception and will, and become a part of their life; but the things which these angels see with their eyes enter into their memory, and they reason and talk about them. It is therefore evident that the way of hearing is to them the way of wisdom. This too is from correspondence; for the ear corresponds to obedience, and obedience is a matter of life; but the eye corresponds to intelligence, and intelligence relates to doctrine.

To the reasons already given why the angels are capable of receiving so great wisdom, this is to be added, which in heaven indeed is the primary reason; that they are without self-love. For in so far as any one is without that love, he is capable of becoming wise in things Divine. It is that love which closes the interiors against the Lord and heaven, and opens the exteriors and turns them to self. Therefore all those with whom that love rules, however they may be in light as to the things of the world, are in thick darkness as to the things that pertain to heaven. But on the other hand the angels, because they are without that love, are in the light of wisdom; for the heavenly loves in which they are,—which are love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour,—open the interiors, because these loves are from the Lord, and the Lord Himself is in them. (ibid. n. 268-272)

The Innocence of Angels

The innocence of infancy, or of little children, is not genuine innocence; for it is innocence only in external form, and not in the internal. Yet it may be learned from this what innocence is; for it shines forth from their faces, from some of their gestures, and from their earliest speech, and affects those about them. The reason is that they have no internal thought, for they do not yet know what is good and evil, and true and false, —from which thought proceeds. Hence they have no prudence from the proprium, no purpose and deliberation, and therefore no intention of evil. They have no proprium acquired from the love of self and of the world; they do not attribute anything to themselves; all that they receive they ascribe to their parents. Content with the few and the little things that are given them, they rejoice in them; they have no solicitude about food and raiment, and none about the future; they do not look to the world, and 'covet many things therefrom. They love their parents, their nurse, and their infant companions, with whom they innocently play; they suffer themselves to be led; they hearken, and obey. And because they are in this state they receive all things into the life. Hence although they know not whence, they acquire becoming manners; hence they acquire speech; and hence the rudiment of memory, and of thought, for the receiving and implanting of which their state of innocence serves as a medium. But this innocence as was said above is external, because only of the body, not of the mind. Their mind in fact is not yet formed; for the mind is the understanding and will, and thought and affection therefrom. It has been told me from heaven that infants especially are under the auspices of the Lord, and that their influx is from the inmost heaven, where there is a state of innocence;"that the influx passes through their interiors, and that in passing through it affects them only with innocence; and that hence innocence shows itself in the face, and in some of their gestures, and becomes apparent; and that it is this by which parents are inmostly affected, and which causes the love that is called storge.

Genuine innocence is the innocence of wisdom, because this is internal; for it is of the mind itself, thus of the will itself, and thence of the understanding; and when there is innocence in these there is also wisdom, for wisdom pertains to them. Hence it is said in heaven that innocence dwells in wisdom, and that an angel has as much of wisdom as he has of innocence. That it is so they confirm by the fact that those who are in a state of innocence attribute nothing of good to themselves, but render and ascribe all they receive to the Lord; that they desire to be led of Him, and not by themselves; that they love everything that is good, and are delighted with everything that is true,—because they know and perceive that to love good, that is to will and do it, is to love the Lord, and to love truth is to love their neighbour; that they live contented with their own, whether it be little or much, because they know that they receive as much as is profitable for them,—little, they for whom little is profitable, and much, they for whom much is profitable; and they do not know what is profitable for them, but the Lord only, to whom all things that He provides are eternal. And therefore they are not solicitous about the future; they call solicitude for the future care for the morrow, which they say is grief on account of the loss or non-reception of such things as are not necessary to the uses of life. Among their associates they never act from an evil end, but from goodness, justice, and sincerity; acting from an evil end they call craft, which they shun as the venom of a serpent, since it is altogether contrary to innocence. (HH n. 277, 278)

I have conversed much with the angels respecting innocence, and have been informed that innocence is the esse of all good, and that therefore good is so far good as innocence is within it; consequently that wisdom is so far wisdom as it is derived from innocence; and so with love, charity, and faith; and that hence it is that no one can enter heaven unless he has innocence; and that this is what is meant by the Lord when He says:—"Suffer little children to come unto Me, and forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of the heavens. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of the heavens as a little child, he shall not enter therein" (Mark x. 14, 15; Luke xviii. 16, 17; Matt. xix. 14). By little children here, as elsewhere also in the Word, are meant those who are innocent. A state of innocence is also described by the Lord in Matt. vi. 25-34, but by pure correspondences. The reason why good is good in proportion as there is innocence in it is, that all good is from the Lord, and innocence consists in a desire to be led of the Lord. I have also been informed that truth cannot be conjoined to good, and good to truth, except by means of innocence; and hence it is that an angel is not an angel of heaven unless innocence be in him; for heaven is not within any one until truth is conjoined to good in him. Therefore the conjunction of truth and good is called the heavenly marriage; and the heavenly marriage is heaven. (ibid. n. 281)

The Peace of Heaven

The inmost things of heaven are two, namely, innocence and peace; they are said to be inmost because they proceed immediately from the Lord. It is from innocence that all the good of heaven proceeds, and from peace all the delight of good. (HH. n. 285)

In the first place the origin of peace shall be mentioned. Divine peace is in the Lord, arising from the union of the very Divine and the Divine Human in Him. The Divine of peace in heaven is from the Lord, arising from His conjunction with the angels of heaven; and in particular, from the conjunction of good and truth in every angel. These are the origins of peace. From which it may be seen that in the heavens peace is the Divine inmostly affecting every good there with blessedness; thus, that it is that from which comes all the joy of heaven; and that in its essence it is the Divine joy of the Lord's Divine love, from his conjunction with heaven and with every one there. This joy, perceived by the Lord in the angels, and by angels from the Lord, is peace. From this, by derivation, the angels have all that is blessed, delightful and happy, or what is called heavenly joy. (ibid. n. 286)

The peace of heaven, because it is the Divine inmostly affecting with blessedness the good itself which is with the angels, does not come to their manifest perception, except by a delight of heart when they are in the good of their life, and by a pleasantness when they hear truth which agrees with their good, and by a cheerfulness of mind when they perceive the conjunction of them; yet it flows thence into all the acts and thoughts of their life, and presents itself therein as joy, even in the outward form That innocence and peace dwell together, like good and its delight, may be seen in infants, who because they are in innocence are also in peace; and because they are in peace all things with them are therefore full of sport. (ibid. n. 288)

I have also conversed with angels respecting peace; and said that in the world it is called peace when wars and hostilities cease between kingdoms, and when enmities and discords cease among men; and that internal peace is believed to be a rest of mind -on the removal of cares, and especially tranquillity and delight from success in business. But the angels responded, that rest of mind and tranquillity and delight from the removal of cares, and from success in business, appear as of peace; but that they are not of the nature of peace, except with those who are in heavenly good; since there is no peace except in that good. For peace flows from the Lord into their inmost, and from their inmost descends and flows down into their lower degrees, and produces rest of mind [nuns], tranquillity of the lower mind [animus], and thence joy. (ibid. n. 290)

Concerning the state of peace which there is in heaven, it may be said to be such as no words can describe. Nor can it enter into the thought and perception of man, so long as he is in the world, by any idea derived from the world. It is then beyond every sense. Tranquillity of the lower mind (animus), content and gladness derived from successes, are relatively nothing; for these affect the 'externals only, while peace affects the inmosts of all,—the first substances and principles of substances in man; and thence it derives and pours itself forth into what is substantiated and originated from those principles, and affects them and the sources of ideas with pleasantness, and so the ends of man's life with satisfaction and happiness. And thus it makes the mind of man a heaven. (AC n. 8455)

Peace in heaven is as the spring or as the day-dawn on earth, which affect not by sensible varieties, but by a universal pleasantness, which flows into the least things that are perceived, and imbues not only the perception itself, but also the single objects with pleasantness. . . . Because peace is of such a nature, that is to say, is the inmost of every happiness and blessedness, and therefore is a thing universal, reigning in all particulars, therefore the ancients used, as a common formula, to say, when they meant, may it be well, Peace be to you; and to inquire, when they would know if it was well with them, whether they were at peace. (ibid. n. 5662)

The State in Heaven of the Nations and Peoples out of the Church

It is a common opinion that those who are born out of the Church, who are called Heathen, and Gentiles, cannot be saved; for the reason that they have not the Word, and therefore are ignorant of the Lord, without whom there is no salvation. But that they also are saved, may be known from this single consideration; that the mercy of the Lord is universal, that is, it extends to every individual; that they, equally with those that are within the Church, who are comparatively few, are born men; and that it is not by their fault that they are ignorant of the Lord. Every one who thinks from any enlightened reason may see that no man is born for hell; for the Lord is Love itself, and His love is a desire to save all men. And He therefore provides that there may be a religion with all, and through it an acknowledgment of the Divine, and interior life. For, to live according to a religion is to live interiorly, for then a man looks to the Divine; and in so far as he looks to this he does not look to the world, but removes himself from the world, and therefore from the life of the world, which is an exterior life.

They who understand what it is that constitutes heaven in man, may know that Gentiles equally with Christians are saved; for heaven is within a man, [Luke xvii. 21] and they who have heaven within them come into heaven after death. It is heaven in man to acknowledge the Divine [Being], and to be led by the Divine. The first and chief thing in every religion is the acknowledgment of a Divine [Being]. A religion that does not acknowledge a Divine [Being] is no religion. And the precepts of every religion have regard to worship, thus, to how the Divine [Being] is to be worshipped so that it may be acceptable to Him. And when this is settled in a man's mind, that is to say, in so far as he wills it, or in so far as he loves it, he is led by the Lord. It is known that gentiles live a moral life as well as Christians, and many of them live a better life than Christians. A moral life is lived either from regard to the Divine [Being], or out of regard to men in the world. A moral life that is lived out of regard to the Divine [Being] is a spiritual life. Both appear alike in outward form; but in the internal they are entirely different. One saves a man; the other does not save. For he who lives a moral life from regard to the Divine [Being] is led by the Divine; but he who lives a moral life out of regard to men in the world is led by self The man whose moral life is spiritual has heaven within him; but he whose moral life is only natural has not heaven within him..... From these considerations it may be seen who receive heaven within themselves, and who do not. But heaven is not the same in one as in another; it differs in each according to his affection for good and hence for truth. They who are in an affection for good out of regard to the Divine [Being] love Divine truth; for good and truth mutually love each other, and desire to be conjoined. For this reason gentiles, although they are not in genuine truths in the world, yet receive them in the other life, according to their love. (HH n. 318, 319)

I have been instructed by many experiences that gentiles who have led a moral life, and have been obedient, and lived in mutual charity, and have received a sort of conscience according to their religious belief, are accepted in the other life, and with anxious care are there instructed by the angels in goods and truths of faith. While they are being instructed they are modest, intelligent, and wise in their deportment, and easily receive truths and become imbued with them; for they have formed to themselves no principles contrary to the truths of faith, which must be dissipated, still less scandals against the Lord, as many Christians have done who have led an evil life. Such gentiles, moreover, have no hatred towards others; nor do they avenge injuries; nor devise machinations and frauds. Nay, they wish well to Christians; while they, on the other hand, despise them, and as far as they can do violence to them. But they are delivered and protected by the Lord from their unmercifulness. The case with Christians and gentiles in the other life, in fact, is this; that Christians who have acknowledged the truths of faith, and at the same time have led a good life, are received before gentiles,—but there are few such at this day; on the other hand, gentiles who have lived in obedience and in mutual charity are received before Christians who have not led so good a life. (AC n. 2590)

It is a Divine truth that without the Lord there is no salvation. But this is to be understood thus; that there is no salvation except from the Lord. There are many earths in the universe, and all full of inhabitants; scarcely any therein know that the Lord assumed the Human on our earth; and yet, because they adore the Divine [Being] under a human form, they are accepted and led of the Lord. (HH n. 321)

There are gentiles who while they lived in the world knew, from intercourse with them, and from common report, that Christians lead an evil life; for example, live in adultery, in hatred, in quarrels, in drunkenness, and the like,—which they abhorred, because such things are contrary to their religion. These are more fearful than others about receiving the truths of faith. But they are instructed by the angels that the Christian doctrine, and the Faith itself, teaches an entirely different life; but that Christians live less according to their doctrine than gentiles. When they apprehend this they receive the truths of faith, and adore the Lord; but more slowly than others. (ibid. n. 325)

Infants in Heaven

It is the belief of some that only infants who are born within the church go to heaven, and not those that are born out of the church; because, they say, infants within the church are baptized, and are initiated by baptism into the faith of the church. But they are not aware that no one receives either heaven or faith by baptism. For baptism is only for a sign and a memorial that the man ought to be regenerated, and that he who is born within the church can be regenerated; because the Word is there, wherein the Divine truths are through which regeneration is effected, and there the Lord is known, by whom regeneration is accomplished. Let them know therefore that every infant, wherever born, within the church or without the church, of pious parents or of impious, is received by the Lord when he dies, and is educated in heaven; and according to Divine order is taught and imbued with affections for good, and through them with cognitions of truth. And afterwards, as he is perfected in intelligence and wisdom, he is introduced into heaven and becomes an angel. Every one who thinks from reason may know that no one is born for hell, but all for heaven; and that man himself is in fault if he goes to hell; and that infants as yet can be in no fault.

Infants who die are infants still in the other life. They have the same infantile mind, the same innocence in ignorance, and the same tenderness in all respects. They are only in states rudimentary to those of angels; for infants are not angels, but become angels. For every one that passes out of the world is yet in the same state of his life; an infant is in the state of infancy, a child in the state of childhood, a youth, a man, an old man, in the state of youth, of manhood, and of an old age. But afterwards the state of each is changed. But the state of infants excels the state of all others in the fact that they are in innocence, and that evil from actual life is not yet rooted in them. And such is the nature of innocence that all things of heaven may be implanted in it; for innocence is the receptacle of the truth of faith and of the good of love.

The state of infants in the other life is far better than that of infants in the world; for they are not clothed with an earthly body, but with a body like that of the angels. The earthly body in itself is gross. It receives its first sensations and first motions not from the inner or spiritual world, but from the outer or natural world. In the world therefore infants must learn to walk, to move their limbs, and to talk; nay, their senses, as the sight, and hearing, must be opened by use. It is different with infants in the other life. Being spirits they act immediately according to their interiors. They walk, and also talk, without practice; but their speech is at first from general affections, not yet so well distinguished into ideas of thoughts. In a short time however they are initiated into these also, because their exteriors are homogeneous with their interiors.

As soon as infants are resuscitated,—which takes place immediately after their decease,—they are taken up into heaven, and are confided to angels of the female sex who in the life of the body tenderly loved infants, and at the same time loved God. As in the world they loved all infants with almost maternal tenderness, they receive them as their own; and the infants, from an innate disposition, love them too as their own mothers. Each one has as many infants in her charge as, from a spiritual maternal affection, she desires. . . . All infants are under the immediate auspices of the Lord; the heaven of innocence, which is the third heaven, also flows into them. (HH n. 329, 332)

It shall also be stated briefly how infants are educated heaven. From their instructress they learn to talk. Their earliest speech is merely the sound of affection, which by degrees becomes more distinctive, as ideas of thought enter; for ideas of thought from affection constitute all angelic speech. Into their affections, which all proceed from innocence, such things as appear before their eyes and are delightful are first insinuated; which being of a spiritual origin, the things of heaven at the same time flow into them, whereby their interiors are opened and thus they are daily perfected. When this first age is past they are transferred to another heaven, where they are instructed by masters; and so on.

Infants are instructed chiefly by representatives, adapted to their capacity; which are so beautiful, and at the same time so full of wisdom from within, as to exceed all belief. By degrees an intelligence is thus insinuated into them which derives its soul from good.

It was also shown me how tender their understanding is. When I was praying the Lord's prayer, and they then flowed in from their intellectual faculty into the ideas of my thought, it was perceived that their influx was so tender and soft, that it was almost of affection alone; and then it was observed at the same time that their intellectual faculty was opened even from the Lord, for what emanated from them was as if it flowed through them. The Lord does in reality flow into the ideas of infants chiefly from the inmosts, for nothing closes their ideas, as with adults; no principles of falsity hinder the understanding of truth, and no life of evil prevents the reception of good, and thus the attainment of wisdom. It is evident from these considerations that infants do not come into the angelic state immediately after death, but are gradually led into it, b y cognitions of good and truth, and this in accordance with all heavenly order. For the least things of their natural character are known to the Lord; and therefore they are led to receive the truths of good and the goods of truth, according to all and each particular of the movements of their inclination.

It was also shown me how all things are insinuated into them by delights and pleasures suited to their genius. It was indeed given me to see little children most beautifully clothed, with garlands of flowers resplendent with the most delightful and heavenly colours about their breasts and likewise around their tender arms. Once it was given me also to see children with their instructresses and accompanied by virgins, in a paradisiacal garden, beautifully adorned not so much with trees as with espaliers as if of laurel, and so forming porticoes with paths leading towards interior recesses. The little children themselves were clothed then in a similar manner; and when they entered, the flowers above the entrance shone forth most joyfully. It may be seen from this what delights they have, and also that by means of things pleasant and delightful they are led into the goods of innocence and charity; which goods are continually insinuated into them by the Lord, through such delights and pleasures. (ibid. n. 334, 336)

It was shown me, by a mode of communication familiar in the other life, what the ideas of infants are when they behold any object. Their conceptions were as if each and all things were alive; there is life therefore in every idea of their thought. And I perceived that little children on earth have nearly the same ideas, while they are engaged in their little pastimes; for as yet they have no reflection, like adults, as to what is inanimate.

Infants are of a genius either celestial or spiritual; those who are of a celestial genius are quite distinct from those of a spiritual genius. The former think, speak, and act very gently, so that there appears scarcely anything but what flows from the good of love to the Lord and love towards other children; and the latter not so gently, but in all things with them a certain tremulous fluttering, as it were (quoddam quasi alatum vibratile), is manifest. It also appears from their displeasure, and from other indications. (ibid. 338, 339)

The innocence of infants is not genuine innocence, because it is as yet without wisdom. Genuine innocence is wisdom, for in so far as any one is wise he loves to be led by the Lord; or what is the same, in so far as any one is led by the Lord he is wise. Infants therefore are led on from the external innocence which is called the innocence of infancy, in, which they first are, to internal innocence, which is the innocence of wisdom. This innocence is the end of all their instruction and progress. When therefore they attain to the innocence of wisdom, then the innocence of infancy, which in the meantime had served them as a plane, is conjoined to them.

I have conversed with the angels respecting infants, as to whether they are free from evils, because they have no actual evil like adults. But I was told that they are equally in evil, nay, that they too are nothing but evil; but that like all the angels they are withheld from evil and kept in good by the Lord, so that it appears to them as if of themselves they were in good. Therefore lest infants, after they become adults in heaven, should be in the false opinion respecting themselves that the good in them is from them, and not from the Lord, they are sometimes let back into their evils which they have hereditarily received, and are left in them until they know, acknowledge, and believe that the case is so. No one ever suffers punishment in the other life on account of hereditary evil; because it is not his own, and therefore it is not by his fault that he is such. But he suffers for the actual evil that is his own, and therefore in so far as he has appropriated hereditary evil to himself by actual life. Infants therefore are let back into the state of their hereditary evil when they become adults, not that they may suffer punishment for it, but that they may know that of themselves they are nothing but evil; and that by the Lord's mercy they are taken out of the hell that is in them into heaven; and that they are in heaven not on account of any merit of their own, but through the Lord; and that they may not therefore boast to others of the good that is in them,—for this is as contrary to the good of mutual love as it is contrary to the truth of faith. (ibid. n. 341, 342)

It shall also be stated what the difference is between those who die in infancy and those who die in adult age. Those who die in adult age have and carry with them a plane acquired from the terrestrial and material world. This plane is their memory, and its corporeal natural affection. This remains fixed, and is then quiescent; but it still serves their thought after death as the ultimate plane, for the thought flows into it. Hence it follows that such as is the character of that plane, and such as is the manner of correspondence of the rational with the things that are therein, such is the man after death. But infants who die in infancy and are educated in heaven have not such a plane, but a spiritual natural plane; for they derive nothing from the material world and the earthly body. They therefore cannot be in so gross affections and consequent thoughts; for they derive all things from heaven. Infants moreover do not know that they were born in the world, and so believe that they were born in heaven. They therefore know of no other birth than spiritual birth, which is effected by cognitions of good and truth, and by intelligence and wisdom, by virtue of which man is man. And as these are from the Lord, they believe and love to believe that they are [children] of the Lord Himself. But yet the state of men who grow up on earth may become just as perfect as the state of infants who grow up in heaven, if they put away corporeal and earthly loves, which are the loves of self and of the world, and receive spiritual loves in their place. (ibid. n. 345)

The Rich and Poor in Heaven

From much converse and life with the angels, it has been given me to know for a certainty that the rich as easily enter heaven as the poor; that a man is not excluded from heaven because he has great abundance, and is not received into heaven because he is in indigence. Both rich and poor are there, and many rich are in greater glory and happiness than the poor.

It may be observed at the outset that, so far as it is granted him, a man may acquire riches and accumulate wealth, if only it is not done with craft and dishonesty; that he may have delicate food and drink, if he does not place his life in them; that he may dwell in magnificence according to his condition; may associate with others, as others do; frequent places of amusement, and talk about the affairs of the world; and that he has no need to assume a devout aspect, to be of sad and mournful countenance, to bow down his head—but may be glad and cheerful,—nor to give his goods to the poor, except so far as affection leads him. In a word, he may live in outward form precisely as a man of the world, and these things do not hinder his going to heaven, if only he thinks within himself as it behoves him about God, and acts sincerely and justly to his neighbour. (HH 357, 358)

It is a life of charity towards the neighbour, which consists in doing what is just and right in all one's dealings, and in every occupation, that leads to heaven; and not a life of piety without this. Consequently, the exercises of charity, and the increase of the life of charity by their means, can take place in proportion as a man is in the duties of some occupation; and in proportion as he withdraws from these they cannot take place. OT this I will speak now from experience:—Many of those who in the world were engaged in business and in mercantile pursuits, and also who became enriched by them, are in heaven; but fewer of those who have been in stations of honour, and became rich by their offices. The reason is, that the latter, by the gains and honours bestowed on them on account of their dispensation of justice and right,and of emoluments and honours, were induced to love themselves and the world, and thereby to withdraw their thoughts and affections from heaven, and turn them to themselves; and in so far as a man loves himself and the world, and regards himself and the world' in everything, in so far he alienates himself from the Divine, and removes himself from heaven. (ibid. n. 360)

The poor do not go to heaven on account of their poverty, but on account of their life. Every one's life follows him, whether he be rich or poor. There is no peculiar mercy for the one more than for the other. Besides, poverty seduces and withdraws man from heaven equally with wealth. There are very many among the poor who are not content with their lot, who are covetous of many things, and believe riches to be blessings. They are angry, therefore, and think ill of the Divine Providence when they do hot receive them. They also envy others their goods; and moreover equally defraud others when they have opportunity, and equally live also in sordid pleasures. But it is otherwise with the poor who are content with their lot, who are careful and diligent in their calling, and love labour better than idleness, and act sincerely and faithfully, and at the same time live a Christian life.

It is believed that the poor easily enter heaven, and the rich with difficulty, because the Word has not been understood where the rich and poor are mentioned. By the rich therein, in the spiritual sense, they are meant who abound in cognitions of good and of truth; thus those who are within the church where the Word is. And by the poor they are meant who are wanting in these cognitions, and yet desire them; thus those that are without the church, where the Word is not. By the rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and was cast into hell, the Jewish nation is meant, which is called rich because it had the Word, and therefore abounded in cognitions of good and truth; cognitions of good are also signified by garments of purple, and cognitions of truth by garments of fine linen. And by the poor man who lay at his gate and desired to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table, and was carried by the angels into heaven, the gentiles are meant, who had not cognitions of good and truth, and yet desired them (Luke xvi. 19, 31). The Jewish nation also is meant by the rich who were called to a great supper, and excused themselves; and the gentiles who are out of the church are meant by the poor brought in in their place (Luke xiv. 16-24). It shall also be explained who are meant by the rich man, of whom the Lord says, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God" (Matt. xix. 24). By the rich man here the rich in both senses are meant, the natural as well as the spiritual. In the natural sense the rich are those who abound in riches and set their heart upon them; and in the spiritual sense they are those who abound in cognitions and knowledges (for these are spiritual riches), and desire by means of them to introduce themselves into the things that pertain to heaven and the church by their own intelligence. And because this is contrary to Divine order, it is said that it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle; for in this sense, by a camel is signified the cognitive or knowing [faculty] in general; and by the eye of a needle, spiritual truth. (ibid. n. 364, 365)

Eternal Rest

Eternal rest is not idleness, since from idleness comes languor, torpor, dullness and stupefaction of mind, and therefore of the whole body; and these are death and not life, and still less eternal life, in which the angels of heaven are. Eternal rest is therefore a rest which dispels these, and causes a man to live; and this is no other than such rest as elevates the mind. It is therefore some study and work by which the mind is excited, vivified, and delighted; and this effect is produced according to the use from which, in which, and for which it works. Hence it is that the universal heaven is regarded by the Lord as the containant of use; and every angel is an angel according to his use. The delight of use carries him along as a favourable current a ship, and causes him to be in eternal peace, and in the rest of peace. Eternal rest from labours is thus to be understood. (CL n. 207)

The Occupations of Angels

The employments in the heavens cannot be enumerated; nor can they be described specifically, but only something in general can be said of them; for they are innumerable, and also vary according to the offices of the societies. Each society performs a peculiar office; for, as the societies are distinguished according to goods, so are they according to uses, since with all in the heavens goods are goods in act, which are uses. Each one there performs a use; for the kingdom of the Lord is a kingdom of uses.

There are various administrations in the heavens, just as on earth; for there are ecclesiastical affairs, civil affairs, and domestic affairs. . . . It is evident from this that there are many occupations and administrations in each heavenly society.

All things in the heavens are established according to Divine order, which is everywhere preserved by means of administrations by the angels; by the wiser angels those things that relate to the general good or use; by the less wise, those that relate to the particular uses, and so on. They are subordinated just as in Divine order the uses are subordinated. Hence also dignity is attached to every employment, according to the dignity of the use. And yet no angel arrogates the dignity to himself, but ascribes it all to the use; and as the use is the good that he performs, and all good is from the Lord, he therefore ascribes it all to the Lord. For this reason one who thinks of honour for himself and hence for a use, and not for the use and hence for himself, can perform no office in heaven; for he looks back, away from the Lord, regarding himself in the first place, and use in the second. (HH n. 387-389)

There are societies whose occupations consist in the care of infants; there are other societies whose occupations are to instruct and educate them as they grow up; there are others who in like manner instruct and educate boys and girls who have acquired a good disposition from their education in the world, and who come thence into heaven. There are others who teach the simple good from the Christian world, and lead them into the way to heaven; others, who in like manner teach and lead the various gentile nations; others, who defend novitiate spirits,--which are those who have recently come from the world,—from infestations by evil spirits. There are some also who are present with those that are in the lower earth; and some too who are present to those that are in the hells, and restrain them from tormenting each other beyond prescribed limits; and there are some who are present to those who are being raised from the dead. In general, angels of every society are sent to men; that they may guard them, and withdraw them from evil affections, and thereby from evil thoughts, and, in so far as from freedom they receive them, inspire them with good affections; whereby they also rule the deeds or works of men, as far as it is possible removing evil intentions. While they are with men the angels dwell, as it were, in their affections; and are near a man in so far as he is in good from truths, and more remote in proportion as his life is distant from good. But all these occupations of the angels are functions performed by the Lord through the angels; for the angels perform them not for themselves but from the Lord. Hence it is that by angels in the Word, in its internal sense, angels are not meant, but some [attribute] of the Lord; and hence it is that in the Word angels are called gods.

These employments of the angels are their general occupations, but every one has his particular charge; for every general use is composed of innumerable uses, which are called mediate, administering, and subservient uses. Each and all are co-ordinated and subordinated according to Divine order; and taken together they constitute and perfect the general use, which is the general good.

In ecclesiastical affairs in heaven are those who in the world loved the Word, and with ardent desire sought after the truths therein, not for the sake of honour or gain, but for the use of life, both for themselves and others. According to their love and desire for use there they are in illustration, and in the light of wisdom; into which they come from the Word in the heavens, which is not natural, as in the world, but spiritual. These perform the office of preachers; and according to Divine order there, those are in higher station who from illustration excel others in wisdom. In civil [offices] are those who in the world loved their country and its general good in preference to their own, and did what was just and right from a love of what is just and right. They are in the ability to administer offices in heaven in proportion as from an earnest desire of love they have searched into and have thus become intelligent in the laws of justice; which they also administer in that place or degree which accords with their intelligence; which is then also in equal degree with their love of use, for the common good. . . . The offices, administrations, and employments on earth are few in comparison with the heavens; and all, how many soever they are, are in the delight of their occupation and labour, from a love of the use, and no one from the love of self or of gain. (HH n. 391-393)

Heavenly Joy and Happiness

All the delights of heaven are connected with and are in uses; because uses are goods of the love and charity in which the angels are. Every one therefore has delights according to the nature of his uses; and also in degree proportioned to his affection for use. (HH n. 402)

Tal [emotion], or in which general affection, are the harmonies of innumerable affections,—which do not come distinctly to perception, but obscurely, because the perception is most general. Yet it was given me to perceive that there are [joys] innumerable within it, in such order as can never be described. These innumerable [joys] are such as flow from the order of heaven. There is such an order in the single and least particulars of an affection; which are presented and perceived, according to the capacity of him who is the subject, only as a most general unit. In a word, there are infinite things in most orderly form in every general thing; and there is nothing that does not live, and affect,—and all indeed from the inmosts; for from the inmosts heavenly joys proceed. I perceived also that the joy and delight came as from the heart, diffusing themselves most gently through all the inmost fibres, and thence into the congregated fibres, with such an inmost sense of enjoyment that every fibre is as it were nothing but joy and delight; and everything perceptive and sensitive therefrom is in like manner alive with happiness. The joy of bodily pleasures is to these joys as a gross and pungent fog to a pure and most gentle aura. It was observed, that when I desired to impart all my delight to another, a more interior and fuller delight than before continually flowed in in its place, and the more I desired this, the more it flowed in; and it was perceived that this was from the Lord. (ibid. n. 413)

Such is the angelic state that each communicates his own blessedness and happiness to another. For there is a most exquisite communication and perception of all affections and thoughts in the other life, whereby each communicates his delight to all, and all to each; so that each one is as it were a centre of all. This is the heavenly form. The more they are, therefore, who constitute the Lord's kingdom the greater is their happiness; for it increases in the ratio of their number. Hence it is that the happiness of heaven is ineffable. There is such communication of all with each and each with all when one loves another better than himself. But if any one wishes better to himself than to another, then the love of self prevails; and this communicates nothing from itself to another save the idea of self, which is most foul, and when it is perceived is instantly separated and rejected. (AC n. 549)

The Aged return to the Spring-time of Life in Heaven

They who dwell in heaven are continually advancing to the spring-time of life; and to a spring more and more delightful and happy the more thousands of years they live; and this to eternity, with increase according to the progress and degrees of love, charity, and faith. Those of the female sex who have died old and infirm with age, and have lived in faith in the Lord, in charity towards the neighbour, and in happy conjugial love with a husband, after a succession of years, come more and more into the flower of youth and adolescence, and into a beauty which surpasses every conception of beauty ever perceptible by the sight. It is goodness and charity which form and present an image of themselves; and they cause the delight and beauty of charity to shine forth from every least feature of the countenance, so that they are very forms of charity. Some have seen them, and were astonished. Such is the form of charity,—which is seen to the life in heaven,—that charity itself is what portrays and is portrayed; and this in such wise that the whole angel, especially the race, is charity, as it were,—which is both manifestly seen, and is perceived. This form when seen is ineffable beauty, affecting the very inmost life of the mind with charity. In a word, to grow old in heaven is to grow young. They who have lived in love to the Lord and in charity towards the neighbour become such forms, or such beauties, in the other life. (HH n. 414)

The Immensity of Heaven

That the heaven of the Lord is immense may appear from many things that have been said and shown in the preceding sections; especially from the fact that heaven is from the human race; and not from those only that are born within the church, but also from those that are born out of the church; from all therefore since the first beginning of this earth who have lived in good. How great the multitude of men is, in all this terrestrial globe, any one may judge who knows anything of the parts, regions and kingdoms of this earth. Whoever goes into the calculation will find that many thousands of men depart thence every day, and therefore some myriads or millions within a year; and this has been so from the earliest times, since which some thousands of years have elapsed. All these after their decease have passed into the other world, which is called the spiritual world, and are passing in continually. But how many of them have become and do become angels of heaven cannot be told. It has been told me that in ancient times very many became angels, because then men thought more interiorly and more spiritually, and thence were in heavenly affection; but not so many in the following ages, because in process of time man became exterior, and began to think more naturally, and thence to be in earthly affection. It is evident, in the first place, from these considerations, that the heaven from the inhabitants of this earth alone is great.

That the heaven of the Lord is immense may appear from this single fact; that all infants, whether they are born within the church or without it, are adopted by the Lord and become angels, —the number of whom amounts to a fourth or fifth part of the whole human race on the earth. . . . It may be concluded therefore how great a multitude of angels of heaven from the first creation to the present time have come from these alone.

How immense the heaven of the Lord is may further appear from the fact that all the planets visible to the eye in our solar system are earths; and that there are innumerable earths in the universe beyond this, and all full of inhabitants; of which in a little special work on those earths. (HH n. 415, 417) See chapter below on "The Earths in the Universe."

It was given me also to see the extent of the inhabited heaven, and of that too which is not inhabited; and I saw that the extent of the uninhabited heaven was so great that it could not be filled to eternity, even if there were many myriads of earths, and in each earth as great a multitude of men as in ours. (ibid. n. 419)

Heaven is never filled, but more Perfect by Increase

It is worthy of mention that the more there are in a society of heaven, and the more they act as one, the more perfect is its human form; for variety disposed in heavenly form gives perfection, and where there are many there is variety. Every society of heaven, moreover, increases in number from day to day, and as it increases it becomes the more perfect and not the society only is thus perfected, but heaven in general also, for the societies constitute heaven. Since heaven is perfected by its increasing multitude, it is evident how greatly they mistake who believe that heaven may be closed by becoming full; when in fact the opposite is true, that heaven will never be closed, and that its greater and greater fullness perfects it; and therefore the angels desire nothing more earnestly than that new angel guests may come to them.

Every society, when it appears together as one, is in the human form; for the whole heaven has that form, and in the most perfect form,—which the form of heaven is,—there is a likeness of the parts to the whole, and of the less to the greatest. The less, and the parts of heaven, are the societies of which it consists, which are heavens in lesser form. (HH n. 71 . 72)


The Origin of Evil and of Hell

IT is plain from the first chapter of Genesis,--where it is said (v. 10, 12, 18, 21, 25), "God saw that it was good," and finally (v. 31), "God saw everything that He had made, and behold it was very good,"—and also from the primeval state of man, in Paradise, that everything that God created was good. And it is plain from the second state of Adam, or that after the fall,—in that he was cast out of Paradise,—that evil arose from man. From these facts it is clear that if man had not been gifted with free will in spiritual things, God Himself, and not man, would have been the cause of evil, and thus that God must have created both good and evil. It is impious to think that He also created evil. That God did not, because He endued man with free agency in spiritual things, create evil, and that He never inspires any evil into man, is because He is good itself; and in this God is omnipresent, and continually urges and entreats that He may be received. And if He is not received yet He does not withdraw; for if He should withdraw man would instantly die, nay, would lapse into nonentity; for man's life and the subsistence of all things of which he consists, is from God. The cause of the fact that God did not create evil, but that man introduced it is, that man turns into evil the good which continually flows in from God, by turning himself away from God and turning to himself; and when this is done the delight of good remains, and this then becomes the delight of evil. For without a remaining delight, apparently similar, man could not live; since delight constitutes the life of his love. (TCR n. 490)

The author gives the following further explanation of the origin of evil, in a conversation with certain angels from. the heaven of innocence, who, having been removed from the world in infancy, were ignorant of and doubted the existence of evil. Being asked by them to explain, how a love could exist which not only was not from creation, but is contrary to creation, he says:—

I rejoiced in heart that it was given me to speak with angels of such innocence, . . . . and I opened my mouth and said:—"Do you not know that there is good and evil, and that good, and not evil, is from creation? And yet evil in itself regarded is not nothing, although it is nothing of good. Good is from creation, and there is good also in the greatest and least degree; and when the least becomes none, on the other side evil arises. There is therefore no relation nor progression of good to evil, but a relation and progression of good to more and less good, and of evil to more and less evil; for in each and all respects they are opposites. And since good and evil are opposites there is an intermediate, and an equilibrium there, in which evil acts against good; but as it does not prevail it abides in effort. Every man is nurtured in this equilibrium; which, as it is between good and evil, or what is the same, between heaven and hell, is a spiritual equilibrium, which brings liberty to those who are in it. From this equilibrium the Lord draws all to Himself; and the man who from freedom follows is led out of evil into good, and so into heaven." . . . . The two angels asked, "How could evil arise when nothing but good had existed from creation? That anything may exist it must have an origin. Good cannot be the origin of evil; for evil is nothing of good. It is in fact privative and destructive of good. And yet it exists, and is felt. It is not nothing, but is something. Say, then, whence arises this something after nothing?" To this I responded:—"This mystery cannot be explained, unless it be known that there is none good but the Lord only; and that there is no good, which is good in itself, except from God. He therefore who looks to God, and desires to be led of God, is in good; but he who turns himself away from God, and wishes to be led of himself, is not in good. For the good that he does is either for the sake of himself, or on account of the world; thus it is either for the sake of reward, or it is simulated, or even hypocritical. From which it is plain that man himself is the origin of evil; that this origin was not introduced into man from creation, but that he introduced it into himself, by turning from God to himself. This origin of evil was not in Adam and his wife; but when the serpent said, "In the day that ye eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil ye shall be as God," and they then turned away from God, and turned them to themselves as to a god, they made in themselves the origin of evil. To eat of that tree signified to believe that one knows and does good from himself, and not from God." But the two angels then asked, "How could man turn away from God and turn to himself, when yet man can will, think, and therefore do nothing except from God?" But I answered, that man was so created that what he wills, thinks, and does, appears to him as in himself, and so from himself. Without this appearance man would not be man; for he could not receive, retain, and as it were appropriate to himself, anything of good and truth, or of love and wisdom. Whence it follows, that without this, as it were living appearance, man would have no conjunction with God, and therefore no eternal life. But if on account of this appearance he induces upon himself a belief that he wills, thinks, and therefore does good, from himself, and not from the Lord, —although in every appearance it is as from himself,—he turns good into evil within him, and so causes within himself the origin of evil. This was the sin of Adam. (CL n. 444)

The Lord governs the Hells

It shall be briefly stated how the hells are governed by the Lord. The hells in general are governed by a general influx of Divine good and Divine truth from the heavens, whereby the general effort issuing forth from the hells is checked and restrained; and likewise by a special afflux from each heaven, and from each society of heaven. The hells in particular are governed by angels, to whom it is given to look into the hells, and restrain the insanities and disturbances there; sometimes also angels are sent thither, and being present moderate them. And in general all who are in the hells are governed by their fears; some by fears implanted and yet in them from the world; but as these fears are not sufficient, and also by degrees lose their force, they are governed by fears of punishment. By these principally they are deterred from doing evils. The punishments in hell are manifold, more gentle and more severe, according to the evils. For the most part the more malignant, who excel in cunning and artifice, and are able to keep the rest in submission and servitude by punishments and the terror of punishments, are set over others. These rulers do not dare to pass beyond the limits prescribed to them. It should be known that the fear of punishment is the only means of restraining the violence and fury of those who are in the hells. There is no other means.

It has hitherto been believed in the world that there is some one devil who presides over the hells; and that he was created an angel of light, but afterwards became rebellious, and was cast down with his crew into hell. This belief has prevailed because in the Word mention is made of the Devil and Satan, and also of Lucifer, and the Word has been understood in these passages according to the sense of the letter. When yet by the Devil and Satan hell is there meant; by the Devil the hell which is behind, and where the worst dwell, who are called evil genii,' and by Satan the hell which is in front, where they are not so malignant, and are called evil spirits; by Lucifer they are meant who are of Babel or Babylon,[See p. 611]—who are those that extend their dominion even into heaven. That there is no one Devil to whom the hells are subject is evident indeed from the fact that all who are in the hells, as all who are in the heavens, are from the human race; and that, from the beginning of creation to the present time, there are myriads of myriads there, and every one of them is a devil of such character as he had acquired in the world, by opposition to the Divine. (HH n. 543, 544)

The Lord casts no one into Hell, but the Spirit casts himself therein

An opinion has prevailed with some that God turns away His face from man, rejects him from Himself, and casts him into hell; and that He is angry with him on account of his evil; and by some it is still further supposed that God punishes man and brings evil upon him. They confirm themselves in this opinion from the literal sense of the Word, where such things are declared, —not being aware that the spiritual sense of the Word, [See pp. 141, 172, note] which explains the sense of the letter, is entirely different; and that therefore the genuine doctrine of the church, which is from the spiritual sense of the Word, [See p. 409, note] teaches otherwise; namely, that God never turns away his face from man and rejects him from Himself, that He casts no one into hell, and is angry with no one. This in fact any one whose mind is in a state of illustration when he reads the Word perceives, from this consideration alone, that God is Good itself, Love itself, and Mercy itself; and that Good itself cannot do evil to any one, and Love itself and Mercy itself cannot reject man from them,—because it is contrary to the very essence of mercy and love, thus contrary to the Divine itself. (HH n. 545)

Evil in man is hell in him; for whether we speak of evil or of hell, it is the same. Now since man is in the cause of his Sown evil, he therefore, and not the Lord, brings himself into hell; for so far is the Lord from bringing man into hell that He delivers him from hell, in the degree that a man does not will and love to be in his evil. All man's will and love remains with him after death; he who in the world wills and loves an evil, wills and loves the same evil in the other life; and then he no longer suffers himself to be withdrawn from it. Hence it is that a man who is in evil is bound to hell, and even, as to his spirit, is actually there; and after death he desires nothing more than to be where his evil is. A man therefore casts himself into hell after death, and not the Lord. (HH n. 547)

The wicked thrust themselves into hell not instantaneously, but successively. This fact originates in a universal law of the order established by the Lord; that the Lord never casts any one into hell, but that evil itself, or an evil man thrusts himself into hell; and this he does successively, until his evil is consummated, and there no longer appears anything of good. So long as anything of good remains he is lifted out of hell; and when there is nothing left but evil he is plunged by himself into hell. The one must first be separated from the other, for they are opposed to each other; and to hang in suspense between the one and the other is not permitted. (AC n. 1857)

All in the Hells are in Evils and Falsities

All who are in the hells are in evils and thence in falsities; and no one there is in evils and at the same time in truths. Very many of the evil in the world are acquainted with spiritual truths, which are truths of the church; for they have learned them in childhood, and then from preaching and from reading the Word, and afterwards have discoursed from them. Some have even induced others to believe that they were Christians in heart, because they knew how to discourse from truths with simulated affection, and also to act sincerely as if from spiritual faith. But such of them as have thought within themselves contrary to these truths, and have abstained from doing the evils agreeable to their thoughts only on account of the civil laws, and for the sake of reputation, honours, and gain, are all evil in heart, and are in truths and goods only as to the body, and not as to the spirit. When therefore the externals are taken away from them in the other life, and the internals which were of their spirit are revealed, they are entirely in evils and falsities, and not in any truths and goods; and it is then evident that truths and goods resided only in their memory, no otherwise than as things known; and that they brought them forth from thence in discourse, and made a pretence of good as if from spiritual love and faith. When such men are let into their internals, and so into their evils, they can no longer speak truths, but only falsities, since they then speak from evils; for to speak truths from evils is impossible, since the spirit is then nothing but his own evil, and falsity proceeds from evil. (HH n. 551)

Infernal Spirits are the Forms of their own Evils

Viewed in any light of heaven all the spirits in the hells appear in the form of their evil. Every one indeed is the image of his evil; for the interiors and exteriors with every one act as one, and the interiors visibly present themselves in the exteriors, which are the face, the body, the speech, and actions. Thus their character is reoognized as soon as they are seen. In general, they are forms of contempt of others; of menace against those who do not pay them respect; they are forms of hatred of various kinds; they are forms also of various kinds of revenge. Fierceness and cruelty from their interiors transpire through them; but when others commend, venerate, and worship them, their faces are contracted, and have an appearance of gladness from delight. It is impossible in a few words to describe all these forms such as they appear, for no one is like another. Only between those who are in similar evil and are therefore in a similar infernal society is there a general likeness, from which, as from a plane of derivation, the faces of the individuals therein appear to have a certain resemblance. Their faces in general are horrible, and void of life like corpses; those of some are black, of some fiery, like torches, of some hideous with pimples, warts, and ulcers; with many no face appears, but in its place a something hairy or bony, and with some only the teeth appear. Their bodies also are monstrous; and their speech is as the speech of anger, or of hatred, or of revenge; for every one speaks from his falsity, and the tone of his voice is from his evil. In a word, they are all images of their own hell. In what form hell itself is, in general, it has not been given me to see. I have only been told that as the universal heaven in one complex is as one man, so-the universal hell in one complex is as one devil, and may also be presented in the image of one devil. But it has often been given me to see in what form the hells or infernal societies in particular are; for at their apertures, which are called the gates of hell, there usually appears a monster, which in general represents the form of those that are within. The fierce passions of those that dwell there are at the same time represented by abominable and frightful [appearances], which I forbear to name. It should be understood however that such is the appearance of infernal spirits in the light of heaven; but among themselves they appear as men. It is of the Lord's mercy, that their hideousness may not appear among themselves as it appears before the angels. But the appearance is a fallacy; for as soon as any ray of light from heaven is let in their human forms are turned into monstrous forms, such as they are in themselves, as described above. For in the light of heaven everything appears as it is in itself. Hence it is that they shun the light (lux)[See note, p. 152] of heaven, and cast themselves down into their own light (lumen); a light which is like the light from glowing coals, and in some places like that from burning sulphur. But even this light is turned into thick darkness, when any particle of light from heaven flows in there. Hence it is that the hells are said to be in thick darkness, and in darkness; and that thick darkness and darkness [in the Word] signify falsities from evil, such as are in hell.

From the contemplation of those monstrous forms of spirits in the hells,—which, as was said, are all forms of contempt of others, and of menace against those that do not pay them honour and respect, and forms of hatred and revenge against those that do not favour them,—it was evident that in general they were all forms of the love of self and the love of the world; and that the evils of which they are the specific forms derive their origin from those two loves. (HH n. 553, 554)

The Nature of Self-Love

I wondered at first why it is that the love of self and the love of the world are so diabolical, and that they who are in those loves are such monsters to look upon; since in the world little thought is given to self-love, but only to that puffed-up state of mind [animus] outwardly manifest which is called pride, and which alone is believed to be self-love, because it appears to the sight. Moreover self-love, when it does not so inflate itself, is believed in the world to be the fire of life, by which a man is incited to seek employment, and to perform uses, in which unless a man saw honour and glory his mind would grow torpid. Who, it is said, has done any worthy, useful, and distinguished action, but for the sake of being celebrated and honoured by others, or in the minds of others? And whence is this but from the ardour of love for glory and honour, consequently for self? It is therefore unknown in the world that self-love in itself regarded is the love that rules in hell, and which produces hell in man.

The love of self consists in a man's wishing well to himself alone, and to no others except for the sake of himself,—not even to the church, his country, or any human society; as also in doing good to them for the sake of his own reputation, honour, and glory; which unless he sees in the uses he performs to others, he says in his heart, What does it concern me? What does it concern me? Why should I do this? Of what advantage is it to me? And so he lets it pass. Whence it is evident that one who is in the love of self neither loves the church, nor his country, nor society, nor any use, but himself alone. His delight is only the delight of the love of self; and as the delight that comes from his love constitutes the life of a man, his life is a life of self; and a life of self is a life from a man's proprium, and the proprium of man, in itself regarded, is nothing but evil. He who loves himself loves also his own; who in particular are his children and grandchildren; and in general, all who make one with him, whom he calls his own. To love these is also to love himself; for he looks upon them in himself, as it were, and himself in them. Among those whom he calls his are also all who praise, honour, and reverence him. (HH n. 555, 556)

Such indeed is the nature of the love of self, that in so far as the reins are given to it, that is, in so far as external restraints are removed,—which are the fear of the law and its penalties, and of the loss of reputation, of honour, of gain, of employment, and of life,—in so far it rushes on, until at length it not only desires to rule over the whole terrestrial globe, but also over the whole heaven, and over the Divine [Being] Himself. It has no limit or bound. This propensity lurks within every one who is in self-love, although it is not evident before the world, where the above-mentioned restrains keep it back. That this is so no one can fail to see in potentates and kings, with whom there are no such curbs and restraints; who, so far as they succeed in their purposes, rush on and subjugate provinces and kingdoms, and aspire after unlimited power and glory. That it is so is still more manifest from the Babylon of this day, which has extended its dominion to heaven, and transferred to itself all the Divine power of the Lord, and lusts continually for more. (ibid. n. 559)

The Fire of Hell, and the Gnashing of Teeth

Infernal fire or love comes from the same origin as heavenly fire or love, namely, from the sun of heaven or the Lord; but it is made infernal by those who receive it. For all influx from the spiritual world varies according to reception, or according to the forms into which it flows; not differently from the heat and light from the sun of the world. The heat flowing thence into plantations and gardens produces vegetation, and also brings forth grateful and delicious odours; and the same heat flowing into excrementitious and cadaverous substances produces putrefaction, and draws forth noisome and disgusting stenches. So the light from the same sun produces in one subject beautiful and charming colours, in another those that are ugly and disagreeable. It is the same with the heat and light from the sun of heaven, which is love. When the heat or love thence flows into goods,—as in good men and spirits, and in angels,—it renders their goods fruitful; but when it flows into the wicked it produces a contrary effect, for their evils either suffocate or pervert it. So with the light of heaven; when it flows into the truths of good it gives intelligence and wisdom; but when it flows in into the falsities of evil, it is there turned into insanities and fantasies of various kinds. Thus everywhere the effect is according to reception.

Infernal fire being the love of self and of the world is therefore every lust which comes of those loves; since lust is the love in its continuity, for what the man loves he continually lusts after. And it is likewise delight; for what the man loves or lusts after, when he obtains it he perceives to be delightful, nor is delight of heart communicated to the man from any other source. Infernal fire, therefore, is the lust and delight which stream forth from these two loves as their origins. (HH n. 569, 570)

Since by infernal fire is meant every lust to do evil which flows from the love of self, therefore by the same fire is also meant such torment as there is in the hells. For the lust from that love is a lust to injure others who do not honour, venerate, and worship them; and in proportion to the anger thence conceived, and the hatred and vindictiveness from anger, is the lust of venting their rage upon them. And when there is such a lust in every one, in a society where they are coerced by no external restraints,—which are fear of the law, and of the loss of reputation, of honour, of gain, and of life,—there every one, out of his own evil, rushes upon another, and in so far as he is able subjugates and subjects. the rest to his dominion; and with delight raves against those that do not submit. This delight is closely connected with the delight of tyrannous rule, insomuch that they exist in a similar degree; for the delight of inflicting injury is inherent in enmity, envy, hatred, and vindictiveness, which, as was said above, are the evils of that love. All the hells are such societies. Every one there bears hatredgainst others therefore in his heart; and as far as he is able, from hatred breaks forth into cruelties. These cruelties and the torments from them are also meant by infernal fire; for they are the effects of lusts. (ibid. n. 573)

The gnashing of teeth is the continual disputing and combating of falsities, and consequently of those who are in falsities, with each other, joined also with contempt of others, with enmity, derision, mockery, and blaspheming; which evils likewise burst forth into violent assaults of various kinds; for every one fights for his own falsity and calls it truth. These disputings and combatings are heard without those hells as the gnashings of teeth; and are actually turned into gnashings of teeth, when truths from heaven flow in there. In these hells are all those who have acknowledged nature and denied the Divine [Being]; those who have confirmed themselves in such acknowledgment and denial are in profounder hells. These, because they can receive nothing of light from heaven, and can therefore inwardly see nothing within themselves, are for the most part sensual-corporeal spirits, or such as believe nothing but what they see with their eyes and touch with their hands. Hence all the fallacies of the senses to them are truths; and it is from these that they dispute. It is from this cause that their disputes are heard as the gnashings of teeth; for in the spiritual world all falsities are grating, and teeth correspond to the ultimate things in nature, and also to the ultimate things in man, which are sensual-corporeal things. That there is gnashing of teeth in the hells may be seen in Matt. viii. 12; xiii. 42, 50; xxii. 13; xxiv. 51. (ibid. n. 575)

The Profound Wickedness and Nefarious Arts of Infernal Spirits

In the same degree that there is wisdom and intelligence among the angels, there is also wickedness and cunning among infernal spirits.... In the life of the body the evil in the spirit of a man was under the restraints which are imposed upon every man by the law, by his love of gain, of honour, and the fear of losing them; and therefore the evil of the spirit could not then break forth and manifest itself, as it was in itself. Besides, the evil in the spirit of a man then also lay wrapped up and veiled in the outward probity, sincerity, justice, and affection for truth and good, which such a man manifested and feigned for the sake of the world. The evil lay so concealed and in such obscurity under these semblances, that he scarcely knew himself that his spirit contained so much wickedness and craft, and that therefore in himself he was such a devil as he becomes after death, when his spirit comes into itself and into his own nature. Such wickedness then manifests itself as exceeds all belief. There are thousands of evils which then burst forth from evil itself; among which are even such as no words of any language can express. It has been given me to know and also to apperceive their nature by much experience for it has been granted me by the Lord to be in the spiritual world as to the spirit, and at the same time in the natural world as to the body. This I can testify, that their wickedness is so great that it is scarcely possible to describe even a thousandth part of it; and also that if the Lord did not protect man he could never be rescued from hell.

The worst of all are those who have been in evils from self-love, and who at the same time, in their interior selves, have acted from deceit; for deceit enters more deeply than any other evil into the thoughts and intentions, and infects them with poison, and so destroys all the spiritual life of a man. Most of these are in the hells behind, and are called genii; and their delight there is to make themselves invisible and flit about others like phantoms, secretly infusing evils into them, which they spread around like the charms of the viper. These are more direfully tormented than others. And those who were not deceitful, and not so eaten up with malignant cunning, and yet were in evils from self-love, are also in the hells behind, but not in so deep hells. But those who have been in evils from the love of the world are in the hells in front, and are called spirits. They are not in such evils, that is not in such hatreds and vindictiveness, as those who are in evils from the love of self; consequently they have not such profound wickedness and cunning. Their hells are therefore more mild. (HH n. 577, 578)

The nature of the wickedness of infernal spirits is evident from their nefarious arts, which are so many that to enumerate them would fill a volume, and to describe them, many volumes. These arts are almost all unknown in the world. One kind relates to the abuse of correspondences; another, to abuses of the ultimates of Divine order; a third, to the communication and influx of thoughts and affections, by conversions, by searching looks, and by other spirits distant from themselves, and by emissaries from themselves; a fourth relate to operations by means of fantasies; a fifth, to a certain casting themselves out beyond themselves, and consequent presence elsewhere than where they are in the body: a sixth, to pretences, persuasions, and lies. Into these arts the spirit of a wicked man comes of itself, when released from the body; for they are inherent in the nature of its evil, in which it then is. By these arts they torment each other in the hells. But as all of these arts, except those that are effected by pretences, persuasions, and lies, are unknown in the world, I will not here describe them specifically, both because they would not be comprehended, and because they are abominable. (ibid. n. 580)

The Torments and Punishments of Hell

Infernal torments are not, as some suppose, the stings of conscience; for they who are in hell have no conscience, and therefore cannot be so tormented. For such as had conscience are. .among the blessed. (AC n. 965)

As love to the Lord and towards the neighbour, together with the joy and happiness therefrom, constitute heaven; so hatred against the Lord and the neighbour, together with the punishment and torment therefrom, constitute hell. (ibid. n. 693)

The torment does not arise from grief on account of the evil they have done, but from the fact that they cannot do evil; for this is the delight of their life. For when they do evil to others in hell they are punished and tormented by those to whom they do it. They do evil to each other especially from the lust of dominion, and of subjugating others for the sake of it; which is done, if they do not suffer themselves to be subjugated to another,—by a thousand modes of punishment and torment. But the dominion which they continually aim at there, is in a perpetual state of vicissitude; and thus they who had punished -and tormented others are in their turn punished and tormented by others; and this until at length such ardour abates, from fear of punishment. (ibid. n. 8232)

The hells have such form and order induced upon them by the Lord that all are held in restraint, and bound by the lusts and fantasies in which their veriest life consists; and as this life is [spiritual] death, it becomes changed into torments, which are so dreadful that they cannot be described. For the veriest delight of their life consists in their ability to punish, torture, and torment each other; which they do by means of artifices altogether unknown in the world, whereby they excite exquisitely painful sensations, just as if they were in the body, and dire and horrible fantasies, as well as extreme alarm and terror; and by many such means. The diabolical crew perceive so great pleasure in this that were it possible for them infinitely to increase and extend these pangs and torments, yet they would not be satisfied, but would burn with the desire to eternity. The Lord, however, frustrates their efforts, and mitigates the torment they inflict.

Such is the equilibrium of all and every thing in the other life that wickedness punishes itself, so that in evil is the punishment of evil, and falsity returns upon him who is in falsity. Every one therefore brings the punishment and torment upon himself, and then rushes among the diabolical crew which inflict such punishment. (ibid. n. 695, 696)

The wicked are not punished in the other life until their evils have reached their utmost; and this in general, and in particular. For such is the equilibrium in the other life that evil punishes itself, or that the wicked run into the punishment of their evil but only when their evil has attained its utmost. Every evil has its limit, though it is different with each individual. This limit they are not permitted to pass; and when a wicked spirit does pass it he plunges himself into punishment. (ibid. n. 1857)

The Use and Effect of Punishments in Hell

The Lord never casts any one into hell, but would lead all out of hell; still less does He occasion torment. But as an evil spirit himself rushes into it, the Lord turns all his punishment and torment to good, and to some use. There can never be any punishment but with the Lord there is an end to use in it, for the Lord's kingdom is a kingdom of ends and uses. But the uses which infernal spirits are able to perform are of the basest kind. When they are in these uses they are not so much in torment. But as soon as the use ceases they are remitted into hell. (AC n. 696)

The reason why torments are permitted in the hells by the Lord is, that evils cannot be restrained and subdued otherwise. The fear of punishment is the only means of checking and subduing them, and thus of keeping the infernal crew in restraint. There is no other means. For without the fear of punishment and torment evil would burst forth into madness, and the whole would be scattered, as a kingdom on earth where there is no law and no punishment. (HH n. 581)

While man lives in the world he is continually kept in such a state that he can be reformed, if only of free choice he desists from evils But the state of the wicked in the other life is such that as to his interiors he can no longer be amended, [See p. 582] but only as to his exteriors, that is to say, by fear of punishment which when he has frequently suffered he at length abstains,—not of free choice, but by compulsion, his lust to do evil remaining; which lust is held in check, as was said, by fears, which compel, and are the means of an external amendment. (AC n. 6977)

Appearance, Situation and Plurality of the Hells

The hells do not appear, because they are closed, but only the entrances, which are called gates,—when they are opened to let in other similar spirits. All the gates to the hells open from the world of spirits, and none from heaven.

The hells are everywhere, both under mountains, hills, and rocks, and under plains and valleys. The apertures or gates to the hells that are under the mountains, hills, and rocks, appear to the sight as holes and clefts of rocks; some stretching wide and large, some strait and narrow, some rugged. They all when looked into appear dark and gloomy, but the infernal spirits that are within them are in a light of similar quality to that from a fire of coals. Their eyes are accommodated to the reception of that light; and this by reason of the fact that while they lived in the world they were in thick darkness as to Divine truths, in consequence of denying them, and in light as it were in respect to falsities, through affirming them,—whereby the sight of their eyes was thus formed. Hence also it is that the light of heaven is thick darkness to them; and therefore when they come out of their dens they see nothing.

The apertures or gates to the hells that are beneath the plains and valleys appear in different forms to the sight; some, like those that are beneath the mountains, hills, and rocks; some as dens and caverns; some as great chasms and gulfs; some as bogs; and some as stagnant lakes of water. All are entirely covered, nor are they opened except when evil spirits from the world of spirits are cast into them; and when they are opened there is an exhalation from them, either like that of fire and smoke, such as appears in the air from a conflagration, or like a flame without smoke, or like soot such as comes from a chimney on fire, or like a mist and dense cloud. I have heard that the infernal spirits do not see these things, and are not sensible of them, because when they are in them they are as it were in their own atmosphere, and thus in the delight of their life; and this for the reason that these things correspond to the evils and falsities in which they are; namely, fire to hatred and revenge; smoke and soot to the falsities therefrom; flame to the evils of the love of self; and mist and dense cloud to the falsities from them.

It has also been granted me to look into the hells, and see what is the character of them within. For when it is the Lord's good pleasure a spirit or angel who is above may penetrate by sight into the depths beneath, and explore their character, notwithstanding the coverings. Thus too has it been permitted me to look into them. Some hells appeared to the sight as holes and caves in rocks extending inwards, .and thence also obliquely or perpendicularly into an abyss. Some hells appeared to the sight like dens and caverns, such as are inhabited by the wild beast in a forest; some like vaulted caverns and subterraneous passages, such as there are in mines, with caves in the direction of lower parts. Most of the hells are threefold. The higher appear within in thick darkness, because inhabited by those who are in falsities of evil; and the lower appear fiery, because inhabited by those who are in evils themselves. For thick darkness corresponds to the falsities of evil, and fire to the evils themselves; for they who have acted from evil interiorly are in deeper hells; and they who have done the same exteriorly, that is from falsities of evil, are in those that are less deep. In some hells there is an appearance as of the ruins of houses and cities .after a fire, in which ruins the infernal spirits dwell, and conceal themselves. In the milder hells there is an appearance as of rude cottages, in some cases contiguous in the form of a city, with lanes and streets. Within the houses are infernal spirits, where there are continual quarrels, enmities, fightings, and violence; in the streets and lanes are robberies and plunderings. In some of the hells there are nothing but brothels, which are disgusting to the sight, full of every kind of filth and excrement. There are also dark forests, in which infernal spirits roam like wild beasts, and where likewise there are subterraneous caves into which they flee who are pursued by others. There are deserts too, where all is barren and sandy, and where in some places there are rugged rocks in which there are caverns, and in some places huts. Such as have suffered the extremity [of punishment] are cast out of the hells into these desert places; especially those who in the world had been more cunning than others in plotting and devising deceptions and intrigues. Their last condition is such a life. (HH n. 583-586)

The hells are innumerable, near to and remote from one another according to the differences of evils, general, specific and particular. There are likewise hells beneath hells. There are communications of some [with others] by passages, and there are communications of more [with others] by exhalations, and this exactly according to the affinities of one genius and one species of evil with others. How great is the number of the hells it has been given me to know from the fact that there are hells under every mountain, hill, and rock, and also under every plain and valley [in the spiritual world], and that they extend themselves in length, breadth, and depth beneath them. In a word, the whole heaven, and the whole world of spirits, are as it were excavated beneath, and under-them there is a continuous hell. (ibid. n. 588)

Equilibrium between Heaven and Hell

Hell in like manner with heaven is distinguished into societies, and also into as many societies as heaven; for every society in heaven has a society opposite to it in hell, and this for the sake of equilibrium. But the societies in hell are distinct according to evils and the falsities from them, because the societies in heaven are distinct according to goods and the truths therefrom. That to every good there is an opposite evil, and to every truth an opposite falsity, may be known from the fact that there is nothing without a relation to its opposite; and that from the opposite its quality is cognized, and in what degree it is; and that hence comes all perception and sensation. The Lord continually provides that every society of heaven has its opposite in a society of hell, and that there is an equilibrium between them. (HH n. 541)

The equilibrium between the heavens and the hells is diminished and increases according to the number of those who enter heaven 'and who enter hell, which amounts to many thousands daily. But no angel can know and perceive this, and regulate and equalize the balance, but the Lord alone. For the Divine proceeding from the Lord is omnipresent, and everywhere observes which way there is any preponderance; whereas an angel only sees what is near himself, and has not even a perception within him of what is doing in his own society.

How all things are ordered in the heavens and in the hells, that all and each of those who are there may be in their equilibrium, may in some measure appear from what has been said and shown respecting the heavens and the hells; namely, that all the societies of heaven are distinct in the most perfect order, according to goods and their genera and species; and all the societies of hell, according to evils and the genera and species of them; and that beneath every society of heaven there is • a society of hell corresponding by opposition, from which opposite correspondence equilibrium results. It is therefore continually provided of the Lord that no infernal society beneath a heavenly society shall prevail; and as soon as it begins to prevail it is restrained by various means, and reduced to a just ratio for equilibrium. (ibid. n. 593, 594)

Freedom of the Infernals

I have listened to evil spirits who inwardly were devils, and who in the world rejected the truths of heaven and the church; when the affection for knowing, in which every man is from childhood, was excited in them, by the glory that like the brightness of a fire surrounds every love, they could perceive arcana of angelic wisdom equally as well as good spirits, who inwardly were angels. Nay, the diabolical spirits declared that they could indeed will and act according to them, but that they will not. When told that they might will them if only they would shun evils as sins, they said they could do that also, but that they will not. Whence it was evident that the wicked equally with the good have the faculty which is called liberty. Let any one consult himself, and he will observe that it is so. (DLW n. 266)

Evil Spirits are restrained from plunging into greater Depths of Evil than they had reached in the World

After death a man who is in evil is no longer capable of being reformed; and, lest he should have communication with some society of heaven, all truth and good is taken away from him, [See Vastation, p. 601] and he therefore remains in evil and falsity; which evil and falsity increase there according to the faculty of receiving them which he has acquired to himself in the world. But yet he is not permitted to go beyond the limits acquired. (AC n. 6977)

It was perceived that the moment a spirit rushes or endeavours to rush beyond those things which he has by actuality acquired to himself in life, that is to say, into greater evils, he instantly incurs punishment, that he may not acquire more evil to himself by actuality in the other life. (S. D. n. 4055)

If evil spirits do any evil in the world of spirits beyond what they have been imbued with by their life in the world, punishers are instantly at hand, and chastise them just according to the degree that they overstep [this limit]; for it is a law in the other life, that no one must become worse than he had been in the world. Those that are punished are entirely ignorant whence these chastisers know that the evil is beyond what they have been imbued with. But they are informed that such is the order in the other life that evil itself has the punishment within it, so that the evil of a deed is entirely conjoined with the evil of the punishment; that is, that its punishment is in the evil itself; and therefore that it is according to order that recompensers be instantly at hand. Thus it is when evil spirits do evil in the world of spirits. But in his own hell one chastises another, according to the evil with which they were actually imbued in the world; for this evil they carry with them into the other life. (AC n. 6559)

The Deadly Sphere of Hell

It has been given me sometimes to perceive the sphere of falsity from evil flowing from hell. It was like a perpetual effort to destroy all good and truth, combined with anger, and as it were fury, because it could not. The effort was especially to destroy and annihilate the Divinity of the Lord; and this, because all good and truth are from Him. But a sphere from heaven was perceived, of truth from good, by which the fury of the effort ascending from hell was restrained. Hence there was an equilibrium. This sphere from heaven was perceived to be from the Lord alone, although it appeared to be from the angels in heaven. That it was perceived to be from the Lord alone, and not from the angels, was because every angel in heaven acknowledges that nothing of good and truth is from himself, but that all is from the Lord.

In the spiritual world all power is of truth from good, and there is no power at all in falsity from evil; because the Divine itself in heaven is Divine good and Divine truth, and all power is from the Divine.... Hence it is that in heaven is all power, and in hell none. (HH n. 538, 539)


What the Last Judgment is

By the last judgment the last time of a church is meant; and also, the last time of life with every one. As regards its being the last time of a church:—There was a final judgment of the Most Ancient church, or that before the flood, when their posterity perished, whose destruction is described by the flood. There was a final judgment of the Ancient church, which was after the flood, when almost all who were of that church became idolaters, and were dispersed. There was a final judgment of the representative church which succeeded, among the posterity of Jacob, when the ten tribes were led away into captivity, and dispersed among the nations; and subsequently the Jews, after the advent of the Lord, were driven out of the land of Canaan, and scattered over the whole earth. The last judgment of this church which is called the Christian church is what is meant, by John in the Apocalypse, by the new heaven and the new earth. (AC 2118)

The Last Judgment does not involve the Destruction of the World

They who are unacquainted with the spiritual sense of the Word, have understood no otherwise than that at the day of the last judgment all things that appear before the eyes in the world will be destroyed; for it is said that then heaven and earth will perish, and that God will create a new heaven and a new earth. They have also confirmed themselves in this opinion, by the fact that it is said that all are then to rise from their graves, and that then the good are to be separated from the evil, and so on. But it is thus said in the literal sense of the Word, because the literal sense of the Word is natural, and in the ultimate of Divine order, where each and all things contain a spiritual sense within them. For which reason he who only comprehends the Word according to the sense of the letter may be carried away into various opinions; as has actually been the case in the Christian world, where so many heresies hence arise, and every one of them confirmed from the Word. But as no one has known hitherto that there is a spiritual sense in each and all things of the Word, nor even what a spiritual sense is, they are therefore to be excused who have embraced this opinion respecting the last judgment. But they may even now know, that neither the visible heaven nor the habitable earth will perish, but that both will remain; and that by a new heaven and a new earth a new church is meant, both in the heavens and on earth. It is said a new church in the heavens, because the church is there equally as on earth. For the Word is equally there, and there are preachings, and similar Divine worship as on earth; but with the difference that there all things are in a more perfect state, because there they are not in the natural world but the spiritual. Hence all there are spiritual men, and not natural, as they were in the world.

The passages in the Word where it speaks of the destruction of heaven and earth are the following:—"Lift up your eyes to heaven, and look upon the earth beneath; the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment" (Isa

li. 6). "Behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth; neither shall former things be remembered" (Isa. lxv. 17). "I will make new heavens and a new earth" Isa. lxvi. 22). "The stars of heaven fell unto the earth,.... and the heaven, departed as a scroll when it is rolled together " (Rev. vi. 13, 14). "I saw a great throne, and One sitting thereon, from, whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and the place of them was not found" (Rev. xx. 11). "I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away" (Rev. xxi. 1) By the new heaven in these passages the heaven visible to our eyes is not meant, but the very heaven where the human race was assembled. For a heaven was collected from all the human race, from the beginning of the Christian church but they who were there were not angels, but spirits, [By spirits the author invariably means those who are yet in the intermediate state, called the world of spirits. See below, p. 711] of various religions. This heaven is meant by the first heaven which was to perish..... Every one indeed, who thinks from a somewhat enlightened reason, may perceive, that it is not the starry heaven, the so immense firmament of creation, that is meant, but heaven in the spiritual sense, where angels and spirits are.

Hitherto it has been unknown that by "a new earth " a new church on earth is meant because by earth, in the Word, every one has understood the earth, when yet it means the church. In the natural sense the earth is the earth, but in the spiritual sense it is the church. The reason is that they who are in the spiritual sense,—that is who are spiritual, as the angels are,—when the earth is mentioned in the Word, do not understand the earth itself, but the people who are there, and their Divine worship. It is from this that the earth signifies the church. I will adduce one or two passages from the Word, from which it may in some measure be perceived that the earth signifies the church. "The flood-gates front on high are opened, and the foundations of the earth do shake; by breaking the earth is broken; by quaking the earth doth quake;.... by reeling the earth doth reel like a drunkard; it swayeth to and fro like a cottage; and heavy upon it is the transgression thereof" (Isa. xxiv. 18-20). "I will make a man to be more rare than fine gold; therefore I will shake the heaven, and the earth shall be removed out of her place, in the day of the fierceness of the anger of Jehovah" (Isa. xiii. 12, 13). "The land did quake before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were darkened, and the stars withdrew their shining" (Joel ii. 10). "The earth shook and trembled, the foundations also of the mountains moved and were shaken" (Psalm xviii. 7, 8). And many other places.

Moreover in the spiritual sense of the Word, to create signifies to form, to establish, and to regenerate; so that to create a new heaven and a new earth signifies to establish a new church, in heaven and on earth. This is plain from the following passages:—"The people which shall be created shall praise Jah," (Psalm cii. 18). "Thou sendeth forth Thy spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the faces of the earth" (Psalm civ. 30). "Thus said Jehovah, thy Creator, O Jacob, thy Former, O Israel, .. . . for I have redeemed thee; and I have called thee by thy name; thou art Mine Every one that is called by My name, even for My glory I have created, I have formed him, yea, and I have made him" (Isa. xliii. 1, 7); and elsewhere. Hence it is that the new creation of man is his reformation; since he is made new, that is, from natural is made spiritual. And hence it is that a new creature is a reformed man. (LJ 1-4)

The Earth and the Human Race will abide for ever

They who have adopted the belief concerning the last judgment, that all things that are in the heavens and on the earth will then be destroyed, and that a new heaven and a new earth will arise in the place of them, believe,—because it follows from the connection of things,—that generations and procreations of the human race are thenceforth to cease. For they think that all things will then have been accomplished, and that man will be in a different state from that before. But as the destruction of the world is not meant by the day of the last judgment,—as was shown in the preceding article,—it follows too that the human race will continue, and that procreations will not cease.

That procreations of the human race will continue to eternity, is evident from many considerations, the chief of which are these:

I. That the human race is the basis on which heaven is founded.

II. That the human race is the seminary of heaven.

III. That the extent of heaven, which is for angels, is so immense that it cannot be filled to eternity.

IV. That they of whom heaven as yet consists are comparatively few.

V. That the perfection of heaven increases according to its plurality.

VI. And that every Divine work looks to Infinity and Eternity.

The human race is the basis on which heaven is founded be. cause man was last created, and that which is last created is the basis of all that precedes. Creation began from the highest or inmost, because from the Divine, and went forth to the ultimates or extremes, and then first subsisted. The ultimate of the creation is the natural world, and in it the terraqueous globe with all things thereon. When these were completed then man was created, and into him were gathered all things of Divine order, from the first to the last. In his inmost parts were gathered the things which are in the first [degrees] of that order, and in his ultimates those which are in the last; so that man was made Divine order in form. Hence it is that all things in man and with man are both from heaven and from the world; from heaven those which are of his mind, and from the world those which are of his body. For the things which are of heaven flow in into his thoughts and affections, and dispose them according to reception by his spirit; and those which are of the world flow in into his sensations and pleasures, and dispose them according to reception in his body, yet fitly according to the agreement [therewith] of the thoughts and affections of his spirit.

From this it appears that the connection between the angelic heaven and the human race is such that the one subsists from the other, and that without the human race the angelic heaven would be as a house without a foundation, for heaven terminates in it and rests upon it. The case is the same as with a man himself in particular; his spiritual things, which are of his thought and will, flow in into his natural things, which are of his sensations and actions, and there terminate and subsist. If man did not delight also in these, or were without these boundaries and ultimates, his spiritual things which pertain to the thoughts and affections of his spirit would flow away, as things interminate, or that have no bottom. In a similar manner it occurs that when a man passes from the natural world into the spiritual,—which takes place when he dies,—since he is then a spirit, he no longer subsists upon his own basis, but upon the common basis, which is the human race. He who does not know the mysteries of heaven, may believe that angels subsist without men, and men without angels; but I can asseverate from all experience of heaven, and from all discourse with angels, that no angel or spirit subsists without man, and no man without spirit and angel, and that there is a mutual and reciprocal conjunction. From this it can first be seen that the human race and the angelic heaven make one, and subsist mutually and in turn from each other, and thus that the one cannot be removed from the other. (LJ 6-9)

It is the angelic heaven for which all things in the universe were created; for the angelic heaven is the end for which the human race was created, and the human race is the end for which the visible heaven and the earths therein exist. Therefore that Divine work, the angelic heaven, looks primarily to what is infinite and eternal, and accordingly, to its multiplication without end , for the very Divine dwells therein. From this also it is evident that the human race will never cease; for if it were to cease the Divine work would be limited by a certain number, and thus its regard to infinity would disappear. (ibid. n. 13)

When the Last Judgment takes place

A judgment is said to take place when evil has been brought to its height, or as it is expressed in the Word when it is consummated, or when iniquity is consummated. The case is this. All evil has its limits, as far as which it is permitted to go; but when it is carried beyond these limits the transgressor runs into the punishment of evil, and this in particular, and in general. The punishment of evil is what is then called a judgment. (AC n. 1311)

The last judgment takes place when there is an end of the church and the end of the church is when there is no faith, because there is no charity. There are many reasons why a last judgment takes place when it is the end of the church. The chief reason is, that then the equilibrium between heaven and hell, and with it man's essential liberty, begins to perish; and when man's liberty perishes he can no longer be saved, for he cannot then be led in freedom to heaven, but without freedom is borne down to hell. For no man can be reformed without free will, and all man's free will is from the equilibrium between heaven and hell.

That the equilibrium between heaven and hell begin to perish at the end of the church, may appear from the fact that heaven and hell are from mankind; and that when many go to hell and few to heaven, evil on the one hand increases over good on the other. For in proportion as hell increases evil increases; and all evil is derived to man from hell, and all good from heaven. Now, since evil increases over good at the end of the church, all are then judged by the Lord; the evil are separated from the good, all things are reduced to order, and a new heaven is established, with a new church on earth; and thus the equilibrium is restored. It is this, then, which is called the last judgment. (LJ n. 33, 34)

The last judgment of every one in particular is immediately after his death; for he then passes into the other life, in which, when he comes into the life that he had in the body, he is judged either to death or to life. (AC n. 1850)

The Last Judgment must be in the Spiritual World

The last judgment must be where all are together, and therefore in the spiritual world, and not upon earth. . . . Moreover, no one is judged from the natural man, nor therefore so long as he lives in the natural world, for man is then in a natural body; but he is judged in the spiritual man, and therefore when he comes into the spiritual world, for man is then in a spiritual body. . . . In the spiritual body man actually appears as he is, with respect to love and faith; for every one in the spiritual world is the likeness of his love, not only as to the face and body, but even as to speech and actions. Hence it is that the true qualities of all are known, and their instantaneous separation is effected whenever the Lord pleases. (LJ n. 28, 30)

I will here add a certain heavenly arcanum, which indeed has been mentioned in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, but has not yet been described. Every one after death is bound to some society, even when first he comes into the spiritual world; but in his first state the spirit is ignorant of it, for he is then in externals and not yet in internals. When he is in this state he goes hither and thither, wherever the desires of his outer mind (animus) impel him; but still, actually, he is where his love is, that is in a society composed of those who are in similar love. While the spirit is in such a state, he then appears in many other places, in all of them also present as it were with the body; but this is only an appearance. As soon therefore as he is brought by the Lord into his ruling love, he instantly vanishes from the eyes of the others, and is among his own in the society to which he was bound. This peculiarity exists in the spiritual world, and is a wonder to those who are ignorant of its cause. Hence now it is that as soon as spirits are congregated together and separated they are also judged, and every one is presently in his own place, the good in heaven and in a society there among their own, and the wicked in hell in a society there among their own. From these facts also it is evident that the last judgment can take place nowhere but in the spiritual world; both because every one there is in the likeness of his own life, and because he is with those who are in similar life, and therefore every one is with his own. But in the natural world it is not so; the good and the evil can dwell together there; one does not know the quality of another, nor are they separated from each other according to the life's love. Indeed, no one in the natural body can be either in heaven or in hell. Therefore, in order that a man may go to one or the other of them he must put off the natural body, and be judged after he has put it off, in the spiritual body. Hence it is, as was said above that the spiritual man is judged, and not the natural. (ibid. n. 32)

The Last Judgment of the First Christian Church has been accomplished

It has been granted me to see with my own eyes that the last judgment has now been accomplished; that the evil have been cast into the hells, and the good elevated into heaven; and thus that all things have been reduced to order, and the spiritual equilibrium between good and evil, or between heaven and hell, has thereby been restored. It was granted me to see from beginning to end how the last judgment was accomplished; and also how the Babylon 1 was destroyed (Rev. xviii) how those who are understood by the dragon were cast into the abyss; and how the new heaven was formed; and a new church was instituted in the heavens, which is meant by the New Jerusalem. It was granted me to see all these, things with my own eyes, in order that I might be able to testify to them. This last judgment was commenced in the beginning of the year 1757, and was fully accomplished at the end of that year.

But it should be known that the last judgment was effected upon those who had lived from the Lord's time to this day, and not upon those who had lived before; for a last judgment had twice before taken place on this earth. Of these two judgments, the one is described in the Word by the flood, the other was effected by the Lord Himself when He was in the world; which also is meant by the Lord's words, "Now is the judgment of this world, now is the prince of this world cast out" (John xii. 31); and in another place, "These things I have spoken unto you, that in Me ye may have peace;.... be of good cheer, I have overcome the world" (xvi. 33); and by these words also in Isaiah, "Who is this that cometh from Edon,....  travelling in the multitude of His strength.... mighty to save?....  I have trodden the winepress alone, .. therefore I have trodden them in, Mine anger; wherefore their victory is sprinkled upon My garments, ..... for the day of vengeance is in Mine heart, and the year of My redeemed is come.... So He became a Saviour" (Isa. lxiii. 1-8). And elsewhere in many places. (LJ 45, 46)

The Former Heaven and its Abolition

It is said in the Apocalypse:—"I saw a great throne, and One sitting upon it, from whose face the heaven and the earth fled away; and their place was not found" (xx. 11). And afterwards:—"I saw a new heaven and a new earth; the first heaven and the first earth had passed away" (xxi. 1).

Before showing what is meant by the first heaven and the first earth, it should be known that by the first heaven is not meant the heaven which was formed of those who became angels from the first creation of the world to that time; for that heaven is abiding, and endures to eternity. For all who enter heaven are under the Lord's protection; and he who has once been received by the Lord can never be plucked away from Him. By the first heaven a heaven is meant which was made up of others than those who have become angels; and for the most part of those who could not become angels.... It is this heaven of which it is said that it "passed away." It was called a heaven because they who were in it formed societies on high, upon rocks and mountains, and were in delights similar to natural delights; but yet they were in none that were spiritual. For very many who pass from the earth into the spiritual world believe themselves to be in heaven when they are on high, and in heavenly joy when they are in such delights as they experienced in the world. Hence it is that it was called a heaven, but "the first heaven which passed away."

It should be known, further, that this heaven which is called the first did not consist of any who had lived before the Lord's advent into the world; but that all who composed it lived after His advent. For, as was shown above, a last judgment takes place at the end of every church, a former heaven being then abolished, and a new heaven created or formed. (LJ n. 65-67)

The first heaven was composed of all those upon whom the last judgment was effected. For it was not effected upon those in hell; nor upon those in heaven; nor upon those in the world of spirits; nor upon any who were yet living in this world; but only upon those who had made to themselves the likeness of a heaven, of whom the greater part were upon mountains and rocks. These indeed are they whom the Lord meant by the goats, which He placed on the left, in Matt. xxv. 32, 33, and following verses. It is therefore evident that the first heaven arose not merely from Christians, but also from Mohamedans and Gentiles, who all had formed to themselves such heavens in their own places. What manner of men they were shall be stated in few words. They were those who in the world had lived in a holy external, and in no holy internal; who were just and sincere on account of the civil and moral laws, but not on account of the Divine laws; who therefore were external or natural, and not internal or spiritual men; who were also in the doctrinals of the church, and were able to teach them, but whose lives were not accordant with them; and who filled various offices, and performed uses, but not for the sake of uses. These and all throughout the whole world who were like them, who lived after the Lord's coming, constituted the first heaven. This heaven therefore was such as the world is, and such as the church is on earth among those who do good not because it is good, but because they fear the laws, and the loss of reputation, honour, and gain. They that do good from no other origin fear not God, but men, and have no conscience. In the first heaven of the Reformed there was a large proportion of spirits who believed that man is saved by faith alone, who did not live the life of faith, which is charity, and who loved much to be seen of men. In all these spirits, so long as they were associated together, the interiors were closed, that they might not appear. But when the last judgment was at hand they were opened, and then it was found that inwardly they were possessed with falsities and evils of every kind; and that they were in opposition to the Divine, and were actually in hell. For after death every one is immediately bound to his like, the good to their like in heaven, and the evil to their like in hell; but they do not go to them until the interiors are unveiled. In the meantime they can live together in society with those who resemble them in externals. But it should be known that all who inwardly were good, and therefore spiritual, were separated from them and elevated into heaven; and that all who outwardly as well as inwardly were evil were also separated from them, and cast into hell; and this from the time immediately after the Lord's advent down to the last time, when the judgment took place; and that they only who were of the character above described were left to form among themselves the societies of which the first heaven consisted.

There were many reasons why such societies or such heavens were tolerated. The chief reason was, that by outward sanctity, and by outward sincerity and justice, they were connected with the simple good who were in the ultimate heaven, and who were still in the world of spirits and not yet introduced into heaven. For in the spiritual world there is a communication and thereby a conjunction of all with their like; and the simple good in the ultimate heaven and in the world of spirits look chiefly at the externals, but yet are not inwardly evil. If therefore these spirits had been forcibly removed from them before the appointed time, heaven would have suffered in its ultimates; and yet it is upon the ultimate that the higher heaven rests, as it were upon its basis. That for this reason these spirits were tolerated until the last time, the Lord teaches in these words:— "The servants of the householder came and said unto hint, Didst thou not sow good seed in thy field? whence then hath it the tares? And they said, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both therefore grow together until the harvest; and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them; but gather the wheat into my barn.... He that sowed the good seed is the Son of Man; the field is the world; the good seed are the sons of the kingdom, the tares are the sons of evil, the harvest is the consummation of the age.... As therefore the tares are gathered together and burned in the fire, so shall it be in the consummation of this age" (Matt. xiii. 27-30, 37, 40). (LJ n. 69, 70)

Of those meant by the Sheep, the Saints that slept, and the Souls under the Altar

Of the salvation of the sheep. After the last judgment was accomplished there was such joy in heaven, and such light also in the world of spirits, as there had not been before. What joy there was in heaven after the dragon was cast down is described in the Apocalypse (ch. xii. 10-12); and the light in the world of spirits was because those infernal societies had been interposed like clouds which darken the earth. A similar light then arose also upon men in the world, giving them new enlightenment.

I then saw angelic spirits, in great numbers, rising from below, [ex inferis,] and elevated into heaven. They were the sheep reserved and guarded there by the Lord for ages back, lest they should come into the malignant sphere flowing from dragonists, and their charity be suffocated. These are they who are meant in the Word by them that "came forth out of the graves," [ Matt. xxvii. 52, 53]and by "the souls of them that were slain" [Rev. vi. 9; xx. 4] for the testimony of Jesus who were watching; and by them that have part in "the first resurrection." [Rev. xx. 5, 6] (CLJ. n. 30, 31)

"I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held" (Rev. vi. 9). This signifies those who were hated, abused, and rejected by the wicked, on account of their life according to the truths of the Word and their acknowledgment of the Lord's Divine Humanity, who were guarded by the Lord that they might not be led astray. "Under the altar " signified the lower earth, where they were guarded by the Lord; the altar signifies the worship of the Lord from the good of love. By "the souls of them that were slain " the martyrs are not here signified, but those that are hated, abused,and rejected by the wicked in the world of spirits, and who might be led astray by dragonists and heretics. "For the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held," signifies for living according to the truths of the Word, and acknowledging the Lord's Divine Humanity. Testimony in heaven is not given to others than those who acknowledge the Lord's Divine Humanity; for it is the Lord who testifies, and gives the angels to testify: "For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Apoc. xix. 10). Since they were under the altar it is plain that they were guarded by the Lord; for they who led in any sort a life of charity were all guarded by the Lord, that they might not be injured by the wicked; and after the last judgment, when the wicked were removed, they were released from captivity and elevated into heaven. I frequently saw them after the last judgment liberated from the lower earth and trans. lated into heaven. (AR n. 325)

The State of the World and Church, after, and in consequence of, the Last Judgment

Before the last judgment was effected much of the communication between heaven and the world, and therefore between the Lord and the church, was intercepted. All enlightenment comes to man from the Lord through heaven, and enters by an internal way. So long as there were congregations of such spirits between heaven and the world, or between the Lord and the church, man could not be enlightened. It was as when a sunbeam is cut off by a black interposing cloud, or as when the sun is eclipsed and its light arrested by the interjacent moon. If therefore anything had then been revealed by the Lord, it either would not have been understood, or if understood, yet it would not have been received, or if received, it would afterwards have been stifled. Now, since all these interposing congregations were dissipated by the last judgment, it is plain that the communication between heaven and the world, or between the Lord and the church, has been restored.

Hence it is that after and not before the last judgment revelations were made for the New Church. For now that communication has been restored by the last judgment, man can be enlightened and reformed; that is, he can understand the Divine Truth of the Word, can receive it when understood, and retain it when received, for the interposing obstacles are removed. Therefore John said, after the former heaven and the former earth had passed away, that he "saw a new heaven and a new earth; and then, the holy city Jerusalem descending from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband; . . . . and heard Him that sat upon the throne say, Behold, I make all things new" (Rev. xxi. 1, 2, 5). (CL J. n. 11, 12)

The state of the world hereafter will be precisely similar to what it has been hitherto; for this great change which has been effected in the spiritual world does not induce any change in the natural world as to the outward form. So that hereafter there will be affairs of states, there will be peace, treaties, and wars, and other things that belong to societies of men, in general and in particular, just as before. The Lord's saying, that "in the last times there will be wars, and that nation will then rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and that there will be famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in divers places" (Matt. xxiv. 6, 7), does not signify such things in the natural world, but corresponding things in the spiritual world. For the Word in its prophecies does not treat of kingdoms or of nations on earth, consequently not of their wars; nor of famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in nature, but of such things as correspond to them in the spiritual world. What these things are is explained in the ARCANA COELESTIA. But as regards the state of the church, it is this which will be dissimilar hereafter; it will indeed be similar as to the outward, but dissimilar as to the internal form. To outward appearance there will be divided churches as before; their doctrines will be taught as before; and likewise the religions among the gentiles. But the man of the church will hereafter be in a more free state of thinking on matters of faith, that is on the spiritual things that relate to heaven, because spiritual liberty has been restored. For all things in the heavens and in the hells are now reduced into order, and all thought on Divine things and against Divine things flows in from thence,—from the heavens all that is in harmony with Divine things, and from the hells all that is in opposition to them. But man does not observe this change of state in himself, because he does not reflect upon it, and because he knows nothing of spiritual liberty, or of influx; nevertheless it is perceived in heaven, and also by man himself after his death. Because spiritual liberty has been restored to man the spiritual sense of the Word is now unveiled, and thereby interior Divine truths are revealed , for in his former state man would not have understood them, or he who would have understood them would have profaned them.

I have had various converse with the angels respecting the state of the church hereafter. They said that they know not things to come; for that the knowledge of things to come belongs to the Lord alone; but that they know that the slavery and captivity in which the man of the church was until this time has been removed; and that now, from the fact that his liberty is restored, he can better perceive interior truths, if he desires to perceive them, and thus become more internal, if he wills to become so; but yet that they have slender hope of the men of the Christian church, but much of some nation distant from the Christian world, and therefore removed from infesters (infestores), a nation which is such that it can receive spiritual light, and become a celestial-spiritual man. And they said that interior Divine truths are at this day revealed to that nation, and are also received in spiritual faith, that is in life and heart: and that they worship the Lord. (LJ n. 73, 74)


Innumerable Earths are inhabited

IT is well known in the other life that there are many earths, and men upon them, and spirits and angels from them. For, to every one there who desires it from a love of truth, and hence of use, it is granted to converse with the spirits of other earths, and thereby to be assured of a plurality of worlds, and to be informed that the human race is not from one earth only, but from innumerable earths. I have at different times conversed with spirits of our earth on this subject; and it was said that any intelligent person may know, from numerous facts with which he is acquainted, that there are many earths, inhabited by men. For it may be concluded from reason that so large masses as the planets, some of which exceed this earth in magnitude, are not empty bodies, and created only to whirl and travel round the sun, and shine with their scanty light for one earth; but that they must have a nobler use than that. He who believes, as every one ought to believe, that the Divine [Being] created the universe for no other end than that the human race might exist, and thence heaven,—since the human race is the seminary of heaven,—cannot but believe that wherever there is any earth there must also be men. That the planets which are visible to our eyes,—because within the limits of this solar system,—are earths, may be manifestly perceived from the fact that they are bodies of earthy matter, for they reflect the sun's light; and when seen through a telescope appear, not as stars glowing with a flame, but as earths variegated with dark spots. From the fact also that they, in like manner with our earth, revolve around the sun and travel through the path of the zodiac, and thereby cause years, and the seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter; likewise that like our earth they revolve upon their own axis, and thereby form days, and times of the day, morning, midday, evening, and night; and moreover that some of them have moons, called satellites, which revolve around their globes in fixed periods, as the moon around ours; and that the planet Saturn, because it is very far distant from the sun, has also a great luminous belt, which gives that earth much though reflected light. Who that knows these facts, and thinks from reason, can ever say that these are empty bodies? Moreover, when with spirits, I have said that it might be believed by man that there are more earths than one in the universe from the fact that the starry heaven is so immense, and the stars therein of various magnitudes so innumerable; each of which in its place or in its system is a sun, and similar to our sun. Whoever duly considers the subject, must conclude that this so immense whole cannot but be the means to an end, which is the ultimate end of creation; and this end is a heavenly kingdom, in which the Divine may dwell with angels and men. The visible universe, or the heaven lighted with so innumerable stars, which are so many suns, is in fact only a means that earths may spring forth, and men upon them, from whom there may be a heavenly kingdom. A rational man cannot but think that so immense means to so great an end were not produced for the human race and hence a heaven of one earth. What would this be for the Divine [Being], who is infinite, to whom thousands, nay, myriads of earths, and all filled with inhabitants, would be little, and indeed scarcely anything? (HH n. 417)

Permission to discourse with the Inhabitants of other Earths

Since by the Divine mercy of the Lord the interiors, which are of my spirit, are open to me, and thereby it has been granted me to converse not only with the spirits and angels who are near our earth, but also with those that are near other earths; and as I had a desire to know whether there are other earths, and what they are, and what is the character of their inhabitants; therefore it has been granted me of the Lord to converse and be in company with spirits and angels from other earths; with some for a day, with some for a week, and with some for months; and to be informed by them respecting the earths from which and near which they were; and respecting the lives, customs, and worship of the inhabitants of them and various other matters there worthy to be mentioned. And as it has been granted me in this manner to know these things, I am permitted to describe them, from things heard and seen. (EU n. 1)

The Possibility of such Converse, and how effected

What I have seen was not beheld with my bodily eyes, but with the eyes of my spirit; for a spirit can see things that are on earth when the Lord grants it.

As I know that many will doubt whether it is ever possible, that a man should be able with the eyes of his spirit to see anything on an earth so distant, I may state how it is effected. Distance in the other life is not like distance on earth. In the other life distances are precisely according to the states of the interiors of every one. They that are in a similar state are together in one society and in one place. All presence there is from similarity of state, and all distance is from its dissimilarity. Hence it was that I could be near an earth when I was led by the Lord into a state similar to that of the spirits and of the inhabitants there, and that being present I then conversed with them. . . . As regards the fact that a spirit, or what is the same a man as to his spirit, can seen things that are on earth, I will explain how it is. Neither spirits nor angels, by their own sight, can see anything that is in the world; for to them the light of the world, or of the sun, is as thick darkness; just as a man with his bodily sight can see nothing that is in the other life, because to that sight the light of heaven is as thick darkness. And yet, when it pleases the Lord, spirits and angels can see things in the world, through the eyes of a man. But this is only granted by the Lord with those whom He permits to converse with spirits and angels, and to be in company with them. It has been permitted them to see through my eyes things that are in the world, as plainly as I, and to hear men conversing with me. Sometimes it has occurred that through me some have seen their friends that they had known in the world, and they were amazed. (EU n. 134, 135)

The Planet Mercury

Some spirits came to me, and it was declared from heaven that they were from the earth nearest to the sun, and which on our earth is known by the name of the planet Mercury. As soon as they came they searched out of my memory what I knew. Spirits can do this most adroitly; for when they come to a man they see in his memory the particular things it contains. During their search after various things, and among others, after the cities and places where I had been, I observed that they had no inclination to know anything of temples, palaces, houses, or streets, but only of the things I knew which were done in those places; also whatever related to the government there, and to the genius and manners of the inhabitants, and things of this nature. For such things are connected with places in man's memory; so that when the places are called to remembrance, these things are also brought to view at the same time. I was surprised at this peculiarity, and therefore asked them why they disregarded the magnificence of the places, and only attended to the things and circumstances connected with them? They answered, that they had no delight in looking at things material, corporeal, and terrestrial, but only at things real. It was proved by this experience that the spirits of that earth have relation in the Greatest Man to the memory of things, apart from what is material and terrestrial.

It was told me that such is the life of the inhabitants of that earth; that is to say, that they have no concern about things terrestrial and material, but only about the statutes, laws, and forms of government of the nations there; and also about the things of heaven, which are innumerable. I was further informed that many of the men of that earth converse with spirits, and that thereby they have knowledges of spiritual things, and of the states of life after death. And hence also is their contempt of things corporeal and terrestrial; for they who know of a certainty and believe that they shall live after death are concerned about heavenly things, because they are eternal and happy, and not about worldly things, except so far as the necessities of life require. (EU n. 11, 12)

The spirits of Mercury above all other spirits possess a knowledge both of the things in this solar system, and in the earths in the starry heaven; and what they have once acquired they retain, and also recall to mind as often as similar things occur. (ibid. n. 14)

They are averse to verbal discourse, because it is material. When therefore I conversed with them without intermediate spirits I could only do it by a kind of active thought. Their memory being of things, not of images purely material, brings its objects nearer to the thought; for thought, which is above the imagination, requires for its objects things abstracted from what is material. But although it is so, yet the spirits of Mercury are little distinguished by the faculty of judgment; having no delight in matters of judgment, and deducing conclusions from knowledges. Bare knowledges, in fact, are the things which give them pleasure. (ibid. n. 17)

The spirits of Mercury differ entirely from the spirits of our earth; for the spirits of our earth do not care so much about immaterial things, but about worldly, corporeal, and terrestrial things, which are material. On this account the spirits of Mercury cannot abide with the spirits of our earth, and therefore wherever they meet them they fly away; for the spiritual spheres exhaled from each are entirely contrary the one to the other. The spirits of Mercury are accustomed to say that they have no wish to look at the husk, but at the things, stripped of the husk, that is, the interiors. (ibid. n. 20)

The spirits of Mercury who were with me while I was writing, and explaining the Word as to its internal sense, and who perceived what I wrote, said that the things which I wrote were exceedingly gross (admodum crassa), and that almost all the expressions appeared as material. But it was given me to reply, that to the men of our earth what was written appeared subtle and elevated, many things of which they do not apprehend. (ibid. n. 27)

I asked whether they had the art of printing among them? But they said they had not, yet they knew that we had printed papers on our earth. They had no inclination to say more; but I perceived that they thought knowledges with us were upon our paper, and not so much in our understandings, thus derisively insinuating, that our papers knew more than we ourselves. But they were informed how the case really is. (ibid. n. 28)

I was desirous to know what kind of face and person the inhabitants have upon the earth Mercury, whether they were like the men on our earth. There was then presented before my eyes a woman precisely like the women on that earth. She was of beautiful countenance, but it was smaller than that of a woman of our earth; her body also was more slender, but her height was equal. On her head she wore a linen cap, artlessly but yet gracefully put on. A man also appeared, who likewise was more slender in body than the men of our earth. He was clad in raiment of dark-blue, fitting closely to his body, without folds or skirts. I was told that such is the form of body, and the costume of the men of that earth. Afterwards there was presented to view a species of their oxen and cows; which indeed did not differ much from those on our earth, only that they were smaller, and approached in some degree to a species of stag and hind.

They were asked about the sun of the solar system; how it appears from their earth? They affirmed that it appears large, —larger there than when seen from other earths. They said that they knew this from the ideas of other spirits respecting the sun. They stated further that they enjoy a medium temperature, neither too hot nor too cold. It was given me then to tell them that it was so provided of the Lord, in regard to them, that they should not be exposed to excessive heat from the fact that they are nearer than others to the sun; since the heat does not arise from nearness to the sun, but from the altitude and density of the atmosphere,—as appears from the cold on high mountains even in hot climates; and also that heat is varied according to the direct or oblique incidence of the sun's rays, as is plain from the seasons of winter and summer in every region. (ibid. n. 44, 45)

The Planet Venus

In the planet Venus there are t w o kinds of men, of opposite character; the first mild and humane, the second savage and almost brutal. Those who are mild and humane appear on the farther side of the earth , and those that are savage and almost brutal appear on the side looking this way. But it should be understood that they thus appear according to the states of their life; for in the spiritual world the state of life determines every appearance of space and of distance.

Some of those who appear on the farther side of the planet, and are mild and humane, came to me and were visibly presented above my head, and conversed with me on various subjects. Among other things they said that when they were in the world they acknowledged our Lord, and acknowledged Him the more now, as their only God. They affirmed that they had seen Him on their earth, and also represented how they had seen Him.

But I did not converse with those spirits who appear from the side looking this way, and who are savage and almost brutal. I was informed by the angels, however, respecting their character, and whence they have so brutal a nature; that in fact they are exceedingly delighted with rapine, and more especially with feeding upon their spoils. Their delight when they think of eating of their spoils was communicated to me, and was perceived to be extreme. . . . I was also informed that these inhabitants are for the most part giants, and that the men of our earth only reach to their navel: and moreover that they are stupid, not inquiring about heaven or eternal life, but that they care only for those things that relate to their land and their cattle. (EU n. 106-108)

The Moon of our Earth

Certain spirits appeared above my head, and from thence voices were heard like thunder; their voices roared like the thunderings from the clouds after lightning. I at first conjectured that it was owing to a great multitude of spirits, who had the art of uttering voices with such a noise. The more simple spirits who were with me derided them, at which I was greatly surprised. But the cause of their derision was presently discovered; which was that the spirits who thundered were not many, but few, and also as small as children, and that before this they had terrified them by such noises, and yet were unable to do them the least harm. In order that I might know their character some of them descended from on high where they were thundering; and what surprised me, one carried another on his back, and thus two of them approached me. Their faces appeared not unhandsome, but longer than the faces of other spirits. In stature they were like children of seven years, but more robust; thus they were diminutive men. It was told me by the angels, that they were from the Moon. He who was carried by the other came to me, applying himself to my left side under the elbow, and thence spoke to me, saying, that whenever they cry out with the voice, they thus thunder; and that they thereby terrify spirits who would do them injury, and some take to flight; and that thus they go in security wherever they will. That I might certainly know that this kind of sound was theirs, he retired from me to some others, but not entirely out of sight, and thundered in like manner. And they showed, moreover, that their voice thus thundered by being emitted from the abdomen, after the manner of an eructation. It was perceived that this arose from the fact that the inhabitants of the Moon do not speak from the lungs, like the inhabitants of other earths, but from the abdomen, and so from a quantity of air gathered there; for the reason that the Moon is not surrounded by a similar atmosphere to that of other earths.

That even upon the Moon there are inhabitants is well known to spirits and angels; and in like manner, that there are inhabitants upon the moons or satellites which revolve about Jupiter and Saturn. Those who have not seen and conversed with spirits coming from those moons, yet entertain no doubt that there are men inhabiting them; for they equally with the planets are earths, and wherever there is an earth there are men; for man is the end for which an earth is created, and nothing is made by the Great Creator without an end. (EU n. 111, 122)

The Planet Mars

The spirits of Mars are the best of all the spirits that come from the earths of this solar system; being for the most part celestial men, not unlike those who were of the Most Ancient church on this earth. (EU n. 85)

It was given to know that the speech of the inhabitants of Mars was different from that of the inhabitants of our earth, in that it was not sonorous, but almost tacit, insinuating itself into the interior hearing and sight by a shorter way; and that for this reason it was more perfect, fuller of ideas, thus approaching nearer to the speech of spirits and angels. With them the very affection of the speech is also represented in the face, and its thought in the eyes; for among them the thought and speech, and the affection and countenance, act in unity. They account it wicked to think one thing and speak another, and to wish one thing while the face expresses another. Hypocrisy is entirely unknown to them; and also fraudulent pretence and deceit. The same kind of speech prevailed among the earliest inhabitants of our earth. (ibid. 87)

The angelic spirits spoke to me of the life of the inhabitants on their earth; informing me, that they are not under governments, but are in distinct societies, larger and smaller, and are associated together there with such as are of congenial mind; that they know whether they are so instantly by the face and speech; and that they are rarely deceived. They are then instantly friends. They said further that their consociations are delightful; and that they converse with each other about what passes in their societies, and especially about what passes in heaven, for many of them have open communication with the angels of heaven. Such of them in their societies as begin to think perversely and thereby to purpose evil they dissociate from, and leave them to themselves alone; in consequence of which they lead an extremely miserable life out of society, among the rocks or elsewhere, being no longer regarded by the rest. Some societies endeavour to compel such to repentance by various means, but if this is in vain, they dissociate themselves from them. Thus they take care lest the lust of dominion and the lust of gain should creep in, that is, lest any from the lust of dominion should subject any society, and afterwards many others to themselves; and lest any, from the lust of gain, should deprive others of their possessions. Every one there lives content with his own goods, and with his own share of honour; that of being reputed upright, and a lover of his neighbour. This delightful and tranquil state of mind would perish unless those who think and purpose evil were cast out, and a prudent but severe check given to the first encroachments of self-love and the love of the world.

In regard to the Divine worship of the inhabitants of that earth, they informed me that they acknowledge and adore our Lord, saying, that He is the only God, and that He governs both heaven and the universe; that every good is from Him; and that He leads and directs them; also that He often appears among them on earth. It was given me then to tell them that Christians on our earth know also that the Lord governs heaven and earth,—according to His own words in Matthew:—"All power is given unto Me in heaven and on earth" (xxviii. 18); but that they do not believe it like those of the earth Mars. (ibid. n. 90, 91)

An inhabitant of that earth was presented to me. He was not actually an inhabitant, but like one. His face was like the faces of the inhabitants of our earth; but the lower part of the face was black,—not from a beard, for he had none, but from a blackness in place of a beard. This blackness extended under the ears on both sides; the upper part of the face was tawny, like the faces of the inhabitants of our earth who are not perfectly white. They said that on that earth they subsist on the fruits of trees,—especially on a kind of round fruit which springs out of their ground; and also on pulse; that they are clothed with garments wrought from the fibres of the bark of certain trees, which have such consistence that they can be woven, and also be joined together by a kind of gum which they have among them. They told me also that they know there how to make fluid fires, whereby they have light during the evening and night. (ibid. n. 93)

The Planet Jupiter

It was granted me to enjoy longer social intercourse with the spirits and angels of the planet Jupiter than with the spirits and angels from the other planets. I can therefore say more regarding their state of life, and that of the inhabitants of that planet. It was clear to me from many circumstances that those spirits were from that planet, and it was also declared from heaven.

The earth or planet Jupiter itself does not actually appear to spirits and angels , for no material earth is visible to the inhabitants of the spiritual world, but only the spirits and angels who are from it....  The spirits of every earth are near their own earth, because they are from the inhabitants of it (for every man becomes a spirit after death), and are therefore of similar genius, and can be with the inhabitants, and be of service to them.

They informed me that the multitude of men in the region of the earth where they dwelt when they were in the world was as great as the earth could support; and that it was fertile, and everything was abundant; that the inhabitants desired nothing beyond the necessaries of life; and accounted what was not necessary as not useful; and that hence was the multitude of inhabitants so great. They said their greatest care was the education of their children; and that they loved them most tenderly.

They stated further that the inhabitants are distinguished into nations, families, and houses; that they all dwell separately, with their own kindred, and that their intercourse is therefore among their relatives. No one covets another's goods; and it never enters their minds to desire the possessions of another, much less to obtain them fraudulently, and less still to extort them by violence. This they consider a crime contrary to human nature, and regard it with horror. When I would have told them that on this earth there are wars, depredations, and murders, they turned away and were unwilling to hear.

By long intercourse with the spirits of the earth Jupiter, it was evident to me that they were of more excellent character than the spirits of many other earths. Their quiet approach when they came to me, their abode with me, and their influx at the time, were inexpressibly gentle and sweet. In the other life the quality of every spirit manifests itself by an influx which is the communication of his affection; goodness of disposition manifests itself by gentleness and sweetness; by gentleness, in that it is afraid to do harm, and by sweetness, in that it loves to do good. I could clearly distinguish a difference between the gentleness and sweetness of the influx from the spirits of Jupiter, and that from the good spirits of our earth. (EU. n. 46-50)

It was also shown me what kind of a face the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have. Not that the inhabitants themselves appeared to me, but spirits appeared with faces similar to what they had when they were on their earth. But before this was shown, one of their angels appeared behind a bright cloud, who gave permission. And then two faces appeared; they were like the faces of the men of our earth, fair and beautiful. Sincerity and modesty beamed forth from them.... They maintain that the face is not body, since they see, hear, speak, and manifest their thoughts by it, and since the mind thus shines through it. They therefore have an idea of the face as the mind in form For this reason the inhabitants of that earth frequently wash and cleanse the face, and also carefully protect it from the sun's heat. They have a covering for the head, made from the inner or outer bark of a tree, of a bluish colour, with which they shade the face. Respecting the faces of the men of our earth, which they saw through my eyes, they said that they were not beautiful; and that the beauty they possess is in the outer skin, and does not consist in the fibres from within. They were surprised that the faces of some were disfigured with warts and pimples, or otherwise deformed. They said that such faces never appear among them. Yet there were some faces that pleased them; namely, such as were cheerful and smiling, and which were a little prominent about the lips.

The reason why they were pleased with the faces that were prominent about the lips was, because their speaking is effected chiefly by the face, and especially by the part of it about the lips; and also because they never use deceit, that is, never speak otherwise than they think; the face therefore is not restrained, but sends forth [its expression] freely. It is otherwise with those who from childhood have learned to dissemble. Their faces are thereby contracted from within, lest anything of the thought should show itself; nor is it outwardly uttered, but is held in readiness either to express or withhold, as shrewdness dictates. The truth of this is evident from an examination of the fibres of the lips, and round about them; for there are manifold series of fibres there, complex, and interwoven, which were not created merely to perform their part in chewing, and speaking by words, but also to express the ideas of the mind.

It was also shown me how thoughts are expressed by the face. Affections, which are of love, are manifested by the looks and their changes; and thoughts, by variations in them as to the interior forms therein. They cannot be further described. The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have also a language of spoken words, but it is not so loud as with us. One kind of speech aids the other; and life is insinuated into vocal speech by the language of the countenance. I have been informed by the angels, that the first language of all on every earth was expressed by the face, and this from two origins there, the lips and the eyes. The reason why the first language was of this kind was, that the face was formed to portray man's thoughts and volitions. The face is therefore called the likeness and index of the mind. Another reason is, that in the most ancient or earliest times sincerity prevailed, and man had no thought, nor wished to have any, but that he was willing should shine forth from his face. And the affections of the mind, and the thoughts from them, could thus be presented to the life, and fully; they thus actually appeared visibly to the eye, as very many things together in a form. This language, therefore, was as much superior to a language of words as the sight is to the hearing, that is, as the sight of a country is to a verbal description of it. They added that such discourse was in agreement with that of the angels, with whom men in those times had communication; and that when the face speaks, or the mind by the face, angelic speech is with man in its ultimate natural form, but not so when the mouth speaks by words. Every one may comprehend also that with the most ancient people there could not be a language of words, inasmuch as the expressions of vocal language are not poured in, immediately, but must be invented, and applied to things; which could only come to pass in the course of time. So long as man continued sincere and upright such language also remained; but as soon as the mind began to think one thing and speak another,—which it did when man began to love himself, and not his neighbour,—then vocal language began to increase, the face being either silent or deceitful. The internal form of the face was thereby changed, contracted itself, hardened, and began to become almost void of life; while the external form, inflamed with the fire of self-love, appeared to the eyes of men as if it were alive. For this want of life which is under the external does not appear to the eyes of men; but it does to the eyes of the angels, since they see interior things. Such are the faces of those who think one thing and speak another; for simulation, hypocrisy, cunning, and deceit, which at this day are called prudence, induce such faces.

I was further informed by the spirits who were from that earth of various things relating to the inhabitants there, such as their manner of walking, their food, and their habitations. As regards their manner of walking, they do not walk erect like the inhabitants of this and many other earths, nor do they creep, after the manner of animals, but they assist themselves with their hands as they advance, and by turns half raise themselves on their feet; and also at every third step of their progress turn the face to one side and behind them, and at the same time bend the body a little,—which is done hastily; for it is thought unseemly among them to be looked at by others except in the face. As they thus walk they always keep the face elevated, as with us,—that thus they may look to the heavens also as well as to the earth. They do not hold the face down, so as to look at the earth; this they called accursed. The meanest among them do this; who if they do not become accustomed to elevate the face are driven out of their society. When they sit they appear like men of our earth, erect as to the upper part of the body, but they usually sit with the feet crossed. They are very solicitous, not only when they walk but also when they sit, not to be looked at behind, but in the face. They are indeed willing to have their faces seen, because therein the mind appears; for with them the face is never at variance with the mind, and cannot be. Those present with them, therefore, openly know what disposition they are in towards them, which they do not conceal,—especially whether apparent friendship is real, or whether it is constrained. These things were shown me by their spirits, and confirmed by their angels. Hence their spirits also are seen to walk, not as others, erect, but almost as swimmers advance, aiding themselves with their hands, and by turns looking around.

Those who live in their warm zones go naked, with a covering; however, about the loins; nor are they ashamed of their nakedness, for their minds are chaste, loving none but their consorts, and abhorring adultery. They were greatly astonished that spirits of our earth derided and thought lasciviously when they heard that they walked in this way, and were naked, and did not at all regard their heavenly life, but only such things. They said it was a sign that things corporeal and terrestrial were of more concern to them than heavenly things, and that indecencies occupied their minds. Those spirits of our earth were told that nakedness is no shame nor scandal to those who live in chastity and in a state of innocence, but only to those who live in lasciviousness and lewdness. (ibid. n. 52, 56)

They take delight in making long meals, not so much for the pleasure of eating, as for the pleasure of conversation at the time. When they sit at meat, they do not sit on chairs or benches, nor on turfy banks, nor on the grass, but upon the leaves of a certain tree. They were not willing to tell of what tree the leaves were; but when I had guessed at several, and at last named it, they affirmed that they were leaves of the fig-tree. They said, moreover, that they did not dress their food to please the taste, but chiefly with a view to what is wholesome. They affirmed that wholesome food is savoury to them. A conversation took place among the spirits on this subject, and it was urged that this would be well for man; for thus he would have at heart, that a sound mind must be in a sound body. It is otherwise with those with whom the taste governs; the body thereby becomes diseased, at the least is inwardly enfeebled, and consequently the mind also; for this acts according to the interior state of the bodily parts receiving it,— just as the sight and hearing depend on the state of the eye and ear. Hence the insanity of placing all the delight of life in luxury and pleasure. From this also come dullness in matters of thought and judgment, and acuteness in such as relate to the body and the world. From this comes man's likeness to a brute animal; with which such men not incongruously compare themselves.

Their dwellings were also shown me. They are low, constructed of wood, and within are lined with bark, of a pale blue colour; and the walls and ceiling were pricked as it were with little stars, in imitation of the heavens. For they are fond of thus picturing the visible heaven with its stars upon the interiors of their houses, because they believe the stars to be the abodes of the angels. They have also tents, which are rounded above, and extended in length, dotted likewise within with little stars on a blue ground. They retire into these in the middle of the day, lest their faces should suffer from the heat of the sun. They bestow great care upon the construction and cleanliness of these their tents. In these they also take their meals.

When the spirits of Jupiter saw the horses of this earth the horses appeared to me smaller than usual, although they were rather robust and large. This was from the idea of those spirits of the horses there. They said there were horses among them also, but much larger; but that they were wild, or in the woods, and that when they are seen they terrify the inhabitants, although they are harmless. They added, that the fear of horses is innate or natural to them. (ibid. n. 59, 60)

The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter make wisdom to consist in thinking well and justly on all occurrences in life. This wisdom they imbibe from their parents from childhood, and it is transmitted in succession to their posterity; and from the love of it, because it was with their forefathers, it increases. Of knowledges such as are cultivated in our earth they know nothing, nor wish to know. They call them shades, and compare them to clouds that intercept the sun. This idea of knowledges they have conceived from some spirits from our earth who commended themselves to them as wise on account of their knowledge. The spirits from our earth who thus boasted were such as made wisdom to consist in such things as belong merely to the memory; as in the languages, especially Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; in things memorable in the world of literature; in criticism; in bare experimental discoveries; and in terms, especially philosophical; and things of this kind. They do not use them as means to wisdom, but make wisdom to consist in these things themselves. (ibid. n. 62)

As regards their Divine worship, its chief characteristic is that they acknowledge our Lord as Supreme, who governs heaven and earth, whom they call the one only LORD. And as they acknowledge and worship Him during their life in the body, they seek and find Him after death. He is the same with our Lord. They were asked whether they know that the only LORD is a Man? They replied, that they all know that He is a Man, for in their world He has been seen by many as a Man; and that He instructs them concerning the truth, preserves them, and gives eternal life to those who from good worship Him. They said further that it is revealed to them from Him how they should live, and how believe; and that what is revealed is handed down from parents to children; and from this, doctrine is spread abroad to all families, and so to the whole nation which is descended from one father. They added that it appears to them as if they had the doctrine written upon their minds. This they conclude from the fact that they instantly perceive and acknowledge as of themselves, whether it be true or not that is said by others respecting the life of heaven in man. They do not know that their only Lord was born a Man on our earth; they said that it does not concern them to know it, but only that He is a Man, and governs the universe. When I told them that on our earth

He is named Jesus Christ, and that Christ signifies Anointed or King, and Jesus, Saviour, they said, they do not worship Him as a King, because a king savours of what is worldly, but that they worship Him as the Saviour. (ibid. n. 65)

They said that they have no holy days, but that every morning at sunrise, and every evening at sunset, they perform holy worship to the one only Lord in their tents; and that after their manner they also sing psalms. (ibid. n. 69)

I afterwards talked with the angels about some of the remarkable things on our earth, especially about the art of printing, about the Word, and the various doctrinals of the Church from the Word; and I told them that the Word and the doctrinals of the Church are widely published, and thus learned. They wondered exceedingly that such things could be made public by writing and by printing. (ibid. n. 81)

They do not fear death there, except for the reason that they must leave their conjugial partner, their children, or parents; for they know that they shall live after death, and that they dc not quit life, for they go to heaven. They therefore do not call death dying, but being heaven-made. Those on that earth whc have lived in truly conjugial love, and have taken such care of their children as behoves parents, do not die of disease, but tranquilly as in sleep, and so pass over from the world into heaven. The age of men there for the most part is thirty years, according to the years of our earth. It is of the Lord's Providence that they die within a space of time so brief, that the multitude of men there may not increase beyond the number which that earth can support. And because when they have fulfilled those years, they do not suffer themselves to be led by spirits and angels, like those who have not fulfilled them, therefore spirits and angels rarely approach them after that period of life. They also mature more rapidly than on our earth. Even in die first flower of youth they marry; and then their delights are to love their consort and to take care of their children. Other delights indeed they call delights, but relatively external. (ibid. n. 84)

The Planet Saturn

It was given me to speak with spirits from the planet Saturn, and thereby to become acquainted with their character in comparison with others. They are upright, and they are modest, and as they esteem themselves small, they therefore also appear small in the other life.

In worship they are extremely humble; for in this they esteem themselves as nothing. They worship our Lord and acknowledge Him as the one only God. The Lord also sometimes appears to them, under an Angelic Form, and thus as a Man, and the Divine then beams forth from His face and affects the mind. The inhabitants also speak with spirits, when they come of age, by whom they are instructed concerning the Lord, and how they ought to worship, and how to live. When any attempt is made to seduce the spirits who come from the earth Saturn, and to withdraw them from faith in the Lord, or from humiliation towards Him, and from uprightness of life, they say they wish to die. (ibid. n. 98)

They said that there are some also on their earth who call the nocturnal light, which is great, the Lord; but that they are separated from the rest, and are not tolerated by them. This nocturnal light comes from the great belt which encircles that earth at a distance, and from the moons which are called the satellites of Saturn.

I was further informed by the spirits of that earth respecting the associations of the inhabitants, and other matters. They said that they live apart in families, each particular family by itself; that is a husband and wife, with their children; and that these children, when they marry, are separated from the house of their parents, and have no further care about it. The spirits from that earth therefore appear two and two. They have little solicitude about food and raiment. They subsist on fruits and pulse which their earth produces; and are slightly clothed, being girt about with a coarse covering or coat, which keeps out the cold. Moreover, all on that earth know that they shall live after death; and therefore they make nothing of their bodies, only so far as is needful to life, which they say is to remain and serve the Lord. For this reason also they do not bury the bodies of the dead, but cast them forth, and cover them with branches of trees from the wood.

Being asked about the great ring which appears from our earth to rise above the horizon of that planet, and vary its situations, they said, it does not appear to them as a ring, but only as a something white as snow in the heavens, in various directions. (ibid. n. 103, 104)

Earths of other Solar Systems

He who does not know the mysteries of heaven cannot believe that man is capable of seeing earths so remote, and of giving any account of them from sensible experience. But he should know, that the spaces and distances and consequent progressions which exist in the natural world, in their origin and first cause are

changes of state of interior things, and that with angels and spirits they appear according to such changes , and that therefore angels and spirits by such changes can be apparently translated from one place to another, and from one earth to another,—even to earths at the farthest limits of the universe. So can a man also, as to his spirit, his body remaining in its place. This has occurred with me; since, by the Lord's Divine Mercy, it has been given me to be in company with spirits as a spirit, and at the same time with men as a man. . . . . . The truth which I am now about to state respecting earths in the starry heaven is from actual experimental evidence. From which it will also appear in what manner as to my spirit I was translated thither, my body remaining in its place. (EU n. 125, 126)

At a time when I was wide awake I was led by angels from the Lord, as to the spirit, to a certain earth in the universe, accompanied by some spirits from this globe. Our progress was to the right, and continued for two hours. Near the boundary of our solar system appeared first a whitish but dense cloud, and after it a fiery smoke ascending from a great chasm. It was a vast gulf separating our solar system on that side from some other systems of the starry heaven. The fiery smoke appeared at a considerable distance. I was carried through the midst of it, and there then appeared a great number of men in the chasm or gulf beneath, who were spirits (for spirits all appear in the human form, and are actually men). And I heard them talking together; but whence or what they were it was not given me to know. One of them, however, told me they were guards, to prevent spirits passing from this world to any other in the universe without permission. That this was so was indeed confirmed; for some spirits who were in the company, who had no permission to pass, when they came to this great gulf began to cry out vehemently that they were lost; for they were as persons struggling in the agonies of death. They therefore stopped on that side of the gulf; nor could they be carried further; for the fiery smoke exhaling from the gulf overpowered and thus tormented them.

After I was conveyed through this great chasm, I arrived at length at a place where I stopped; and then there appeared to me spirits from above, with whom it was given to converse. From their speech, and their peculiar manner of apprehending and explaining things, I clearly perceived that they were from another earth; for they differed entirely from the spirits of our solar system. They perceived also from my discourse that I came from afar.

After conversing for some time on various subjects, I asked what God they worshipped? They said that they worshipped a certain Angel, who appears to them as a Divine man, for He is refulgent with light; and that He instructs them, and gives them to perceive what they ought to do. They said further that they know the Most High God is in the Sun of the angelic heaven, and that He appears to His angel, and not to them; and that He is too great for them to dare to adore Him. The angel whom they worshipped was an angelic society, to which it was granted by the Lord to preside over them, and teach them the way of what is just and right. (ibid. n. 128-130)

Being questioned concerning the sun of their system, which enlightens their earth, they said it has a flaming appearance; and when I represented the size of the sun of our earth, they said theirs was less. For their sun to our eyes is a star, and I was told by the angels that it is one of the lesser stars. They said that the starry heaven is also seen from their earth; and that to the westward a star larger than the rest appears to them, which was declared from heaven to be our sun.

After this my sight was opened, so that I could in some degree look upon their earth; and there appeared many green fields, and forests with trees in foliage, and also fleecy sheep. Afterwards I saw some of the inhabitants, who were of the meaner class, clothed nearly like peasantry in Europe. I saw also a man with his wife. She appeared of beautiful form, and graceful mien; so likewise did the man. But I remarked that he had a stately carriage, and a deportment which had a semblance of haughtiness; but the woman's deportment was humble. I was informed by the angels that such is the manner on that earth; yet that the men who have such a bearing are beloved, because they nevertheless are good. I was also informed that they are not permitted to have more than one wife; for it is contrary to the laws. The woman whom I saw had before her breast a wide garment, behind which she could conceal herself, which was so made that she could insert her arms, and clothe herself in it, and so walk away. As to the lower part it could be gathered up, and when gathered up and applied to the body it looked like a stomacher, such as are worn by the women of our earth. But the same also served the man for a covering; he was seen to take it from the woman, put it on his back, and loosen the lower part, which then flowed down to his feet like a toga; and thus clothed he walked away.

What I saw on that earth was not seen with the eyes of my body, but with the eyes of my spirit; for a spirit can see the things which are on any earth, when it is granted by the Lord. (ibid. n. 133, 134)

Of a Second Earth beyond our Solar System

I was afterwards led of the Lord to an earth in the universe which was farther distant from our earth than the first, just spoken of. That it was farther distant was plain from the fact that I was two days in being led thither, as to my spirit. This earth was towards the left, whereas the former was towards the right. Since remoteness in the spiritual world does not arise from distance of place, but from difference of state, as was said above, therefore from the length of my progress thither I could infer that the state of the interiors among them, which is the state of the affections and thence thoughts, differed as much from the state of the interiors among the spirits of our earth. Being conveyed thither, as to the spirit, by changes of state of the interiors, it was given me to observe the successive changes themselves, before I arrived there. This was done while I was wide awake.

When I arrived there the earth was not seen by me, but only the spirits who were from that earth. Those spirits were at a considerable height above my head, whence they beheld me as I approached. From where they stood they observed that I was not from their earth, but from some other at a great distance. They therefore accosted me with questions on various subjects, to which it was given me to reply. Among other things I told them to what earth I belonged, and what kind of an earth it is; and then I told them about the other earths in our solar system; and at the same time also of the spirits of the earth or planet Mercury, that they wander about to many earths to procure for themselves knowledges on various matters. On hearing this they said that they had also seen those spirits among them. (EU. n. 138, 139)

Being asked about the God they worship, they replied that they worshipped a God visible and invisible, God visible in the Human Form, and God invisible not in any form; and it was discoverable from their conversation, and also from the ideas of their thought, as communicated to me, that the visible God was our Lord Himself; and they also called Him Lord. (ibid. n. 141)

The spirits who were seen on high were asked, whether they live under the rule of princes or kings on their earth? To which they replied, that they do not know what rule is; and that they live under themselves, distinguished into nations, families, and houses. They were asked whether they are thus in a state of security? They said that they are secure, since one family never envies another in any respect, or desires to deprive another of its just rights. They were indignant that such questions should be asked as suggested hostility, or any protection against robbers. What, said they, have we need of but food and raiment, and thus to live content and quiet under ourselves?

They were further asked about their earth and its produce. They said that they have green fields, flower gardens, forests filled with fruit-trees, and also lakes abounding with fish that they have birds of a blue colour with golden wings, and animals, larger and smaller. Among the smaller they mentioned one kind, which has the back elevated like camels on our earth. They do not however eat the flesh of animals, but only the flesh of fishes and besides this the fruits of trees and pulse of the earth. They said, moreover, that they do not live in houses that are built, but in groves, among the leafy branches of which they make themselves a covering from the rain and from the heat of the sun.

Being asked about their sun, which appears from our earth as a star, they said that it has a fiery appearance, and is not larger to the sight than a man's head. I was told by the angels that the star which is their sun is among the lesser stars, not far distant from the equator.

Some spirits [of them] were seen who were like what they had been during their abode on their earth as men. They had faces not unlike those of the men of our earth, except that their eyes, and also their nose, was small. This appearing to me somewhat of deformity, they said that with them small eyes and a small nose were accounted marks of beauty. A female was seen, clad in a gown ornamented with roses of various colours. I asked whence they are supplied with materials for clothing on their earth? They answered, that they gather from certain plants a substance which they spin into thread; and that they then immediately lay the threads in double and triple rows, and moistened them with a glutinous liquid which gives them consistency. They afterwards colour the cloth thus prepared with the juices of plants. It was also shown me how they make the thread. They sit reclining backwards upon a seat, and wind it by the help of their toes, and when wound draw it towards them, and twist it with the hand.

They also told me that on that earth a husband has only one wife and they bear children to the number of ten to fifteen. (ibid. n. 143-147 )

Note.—For an account of other earths beyond our solar system the reader is referred to the author's little work, "The Earths of the Universe."



The real spiritual life of man resides in a true conscience for therein is his faith conjoined with his charity. To act from conscience therefore, with those who are possessed of it, is to act from their own spiritual life, and to act contrary to conscience, with them is to act contrary to their own spiritual life. Hence it is that they are in the tranquillity of peace, and in internal blessedness, when they act according to conscience, and in in-tranquillity and pain when they act contrary to it. This pain is what is called remorse of conscience.

Man has a conscience of what is good, and a conscience of what is just. The conscience of what is good is the conscience of the internal man, and the conscience of what is just is the conscience of the external man. The conscience of what is good consists in acting according to the precepts of faith, from internal affection; and the conscience of what is just consists in acting according to the civil and moral laws, from external affection. They who have a conscience of what is good have also a conscience of what is just; and they who have only a conscience of what is just are in the capability of receiving a conscience of what is good; and they also do receive it when they are instructed.

With those who are in charity towards the neighbour, the conscience is a conscience of truth, because it is formed by the faith of truth; but with those who are in love to the Lord it is a conscience of good, because it is formed by the love of truth. The conscience of these is a higher conscience, and is called the perception of truth from good. They who have a conscience of truth are of the Lord's spiritual kingdom; and they who have the higher conscience which is called perception are of the Lord's celestial kingdom. (HD n. 133-135)

The Lord's Favor to Man's varied Conscience

There is no pure intellectual truth, that is truth Divine, with man; but the truths of faith, which are with man, are appearances of truth, to which fallacies of the senses adjoin themselves, and to these the falsities which come of the lusts of self-love and the love of the world. Such are the truths which exist with man; and how impure these are may appear from the fact that they are adjoined to such things. Yet the Lord conjoins himself with man in these impurities; for He animates and quickens them with innocence and charity, and thus forms a conscience. The truths of conscience are various, being accordmg to every one's religion; and these, provided they are not contrary to the goods of faith, the Lord is not willing to violate, because man is imbued with them, and attaches sanctity to them. The Lord never breaks any one, but bends him. This may appear from the consideration, that there are some of all denominations within the church who are endowed with conscience; though their conscience is more perfect in proportion as the truths which form it approach nearer to the genuine truths of faith. (AC n. 2053)

The Pleasures of Life

There is no pleasure existing in the body which does not arise and subsist from some interior affection; and there is no interior affection which does not arise and subsist from one still more interior, in which is its use and end. These interior things, which proceed in order even from the inmost, man is not sensible of while he lives in the body, and most men scarcely know that they exist, much less that pleasures are thence derived. As however nothing can ever come forth in externals except in order from the interiors, pleasures are only ultimate effects This may be evident to any one from the consideration of the sense of sight and its pleasures. Unless there were interior vision the eye could never see. The sight of the eye springs from an inner sight; and therefore a man sees equally well after death, nay, much better, than while he lived in the body,—not indeed worldly and corporeal objects, but those which are in the other life. They who were blind in the life of the body see in the other life equally well with those who were quick-sighted; for the same reason also a man sees while he sleeps and in his dreams, as well as when he is awake. By the internal sight it has been granted me to see the things that are in the other life more clearly than I see those that are in the world. From these considerations it is evident that external vision springs from interior vision, and this from a vision still more interior, and so on; the case is the same with every other sense, and with every pleasure.

Some are of opinion that no one who wishes to be happy in the other life should ever live in the pleasures of the body and of the senses, but should renounce all such delights; saying, that these corporeal and worldly pleasures are what draw away and withhold a man from a spiritual and heavenly life. But they who thus believe, and therefore voluntarily reduce themselves to wretchedness while they live in the world, are not aware of the real truth. It is by no means forbidden any one to enjoy the pleasures of the body and of sensual things; that is to say, the pleasures of the possession of lands, and of wealth; the pleasures of honours, and of offices of the state; the pleasures of conjugial love, and of love towards infants and children; the pleasures of friendship, and of social intercourse; the pleasures of hearing, or of the sweetness of singing and music; the pleasures of sight, or of beauties, which are manifold,—as of becoming raiment, of well-furnished houses, of beautiful gardens, and the like, which from their harmonies are delightful; the pleasures of smell, or of agreeable odours; the pleasures of taste, or of the sweetness and usefulness of meats and drinks; and the pleasures of the touch; for these, as was observed, are outermost or corporeal affections from interior affection. The interior affections, which are living, all derive their delight from good and truth; and good and truth derive their delight from charity and faith, and then from the Lord, thus from life itself; and therefore the affections and pleasures which are from thence are alive. Because genuine pleasures derive their origin from this source they are never denied to any one. Nay more, when pleasures thence derive their origin the delight of them indefinitely exceeds the delight which is not from thence. This, comparatively, is filthy. Thus, for example, the pleasure of conjugial love; when it derives its origin from true conjugial love, it indefinitely exceeds the delight which is not from thence; yea, so much that they who are in true conjugial love are in a kind of heavenly delight and happiness, for it comes down from heaven. This, too, they who were of the Most Ancient church confessed; the delight of adulteries, which adulterers feel, was so abominable to them that they were struck with horror at the bare thought of it. From this it is evident what is the nature of delight which does not descend from the true Fountain of Life, or from the Lord. That the pleasures above mentioned are never denied to man, nay, that so far from being denied they first become real pleasures when they are from their true source, may also appear from the consideration, that very many who have lived in the world in power, dignity, and opulence, and have enjoyed abundantly all the pleasures of the body and of sense, are among the blessed and happy in heaven; and with them the interior delights and felicities are now alive, because they derived their origin from the goods of charity and the truths of faith towards the Lord. And as they were thence derived, they regarded all their pleasures with a view to use, which was their end. Use was itself most delightful to them; and from this they received the delight of their pleasures. (AC n. 994, 995)

The Origin of Human Speech

Human speech in its first origin is the end which a man wishes to manifest by speech. This end is his love; for what a man loves he regards as an end. From this flows the man's thought, and at length his speech. That this is so every one who reflects well may know and apperceive. That the end regarded is the first principle of speech, is manifest from the common rule that in all intelligence there is an end, and without an end there is no intelligence. And that thought is the second principle of speech, flowing from the first, is also manifest; for no one can speak without thought, or think without an end. That from this follows the language of words, and that this is the ultimate, which is properly called speech, is known. Because this is so a man who attends to the speech of another does not give his attention to the expressions or words of speech, but to the sense of them, which is that of the thought of him who speaks; and he who is wise attends to the end for which he so spake from thought, that is to what he intends, and what he loves. These three things are presented in the speech of man, to which things the language of words serves as the ultimate plane. (AC n. 9407)

The Church cannot be raised up anew in any Nation until it is entirely Vastated

The second Ancient Church was degenerated and corrupted until, from a kind of internal worship, it at last, in the family of Terah, became idolatrous,—passing, as churches are wont to do, from internal to the mere external things of worship, the internal being blotted out of remembrance. . . . Haran (Gen. xi. 28) signifies interior idolatrous worship; Terah his father, signifies idolatrous worship in general;...  Haran died before Terah his father, signifies that interior worship was blotted out of remembrance, and become merely idolatrous.... As regards the fact that interior worship was blotted out of remembrance, or had become none, the case is this:—The church cannot arise anew among any nation, until it is so vastated that nothing of evil and falsity remains in its internal worship. So long as there is evil in its internal worship, those things, good and true, which constitute its internal worship are prevented; for while evils and falsities are present, goods and truths cannot be received. This is evident from the fact that they who are born into any heresy, and have so confirmed themselves in its falsities that they are entirely persuaded, can with difficulty, if ever, be brought to receive the truths that are contrary to their falsities; but it is different with gentiles who do not know what the truth of faith is, and yet live in charity. This was the reason why the church of the Lord could not be restored among the Jews, but among gentiles who had no knowledges of faith. They entirely darkened and thus extinguished the light of truth, by their falsities; but the gentiles not so much, for they knew not what the truth of faith was, and what they did not know they could not darken and extinguish. Now, as a new Church was to be restored, they were chosen with whom goods and truths of faith might be implanted, —with whom all knowledge of the good and truth of faith had been obliterated, and who like gentiles were become external idolaters. Respecting Terah and Abram, it was shown above that they were of such a character; that is, that they worshipped other gods, and had no knowledge of Jehovah, nor therefore of what the good and truth of faith were. They had thus become better fitted to receive the seed of truth than others in Syria, among whom knowledges still remained. That they did remain with some, is evident from Balaam, who was from Syria, and who not only worshipped Jehovah, but also sacrificed, and was at the same time a prophet. (AC n. 1356, 1365, 1366)

Organic Function, the ground of Correspondence of Heaven with all things in Man

The whole heaven is a Grand Man (Maximus Homo); and it is called a Grand Man because it corresponds to the Lord's Divine Human. For the Lord is the only Man; and by so much as an angel or spirit or a man on earth has from the Lord, they also are men.... All things in the human body, in general and in particular, correspond most exactly to the Grand Man, and as it were to so many societies there. For, as in the human body there are members and organs, and these consist of parts, and parts of parts, so the Lord's heaven is distinguished into lesser heavens, and these into still less, and these into least, and finally into angels, each one of whom is a little heaven corresponding to the greatest. These heavens are most distinct from each other,—each one belonging to its general, and the general heavens to the most general or whole, which is the Grand Man.

But as regards the correspondence, the case is this: the heavens spoken of correspond, indeed, to the actual organic forms of the human body,—on which account it is said that societies, or angels, belong to the province of the brain, or to the province of the heart, or to the province of the lungs, or of the eye, and so on; and yet they chiefly correspond to the functions of those viscera or organs. The case is like that of the organs or viscera themselves, in that the functions constitute one with their organic forms. For it is impossible to conceive of any function except by forms, that is by substances; because substances are the subjects by which functions are performed. For example: one cannot conceive of sight without the eye, or of respiration without the lungs. The eye is the organic form from which and by which sight is produced; and the lungs are the organic form from and by which respiration is effected; and so with the other organs. The functions therefore are what the heavenly societies chiefly correspond to; but because they correspond to the functions, they correspond also to the organic forms, for they are indivisible and inseparable from each other; insomuch that whether we say function, or organic form by which and from which the function is, it is the same. Hence it is that the correspondence is with the organs, members and viscera because it is with the functions. When therefore a function is performed, the organ also is excited. Such in fact is the case in all and each particular thing that a man does. When he wills to do this or that, or to act thus or so, and determines it, then the organs move comformably; that is, they move in accordance with the purpose of the function or use; for it is the use which governs in the forms. It is evident therefore, also, that the use existed before the organic forms of the body were extant; and that the use produced and adapted them to itself, not the contrary. But when the forms are produced, or the organs adapted, the uses proceed from them; and it then appears as if the forms or organs were prior to the uses, although it is not so. For use flows in from the Lord,—and this through heaven, according to the order and according to the form in which heaven is disposed by the Lord, thus according to correspondences. Thus man comes into being, and thus he subsists. It is evident again from this whence it comes that man, as to each and all his parts, corresponds to the heavens. (AC n. 4219, 4222, 4223)

The Church passes through the stages of Life like an individual

The Church appears before the Lord as one man; and this greatest man must pass through his ages, like the individual man, and finally to old age, and then when he dies he will rise again. The Lord says:—"Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much, fruit" (John xii, 24) (TCR 762)

A Man's Mind is the Man himself

For the elementary texture of the human form, or the human form itself with all and each of its parts, is from the principles continued through the nerves from the brain. This is the form into which the man comes after death, and which is then called a spirit, and angel, and which is in all perfection a man, but spiritual. The material form which is added and superinduced in the world is not a human form of itself, but from the former, being added and superinduced that the man may perform uses in the natural world. (DLW 388)

Table of Contents